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Density (ρ)
[SI units: kg/m ^{3}]

Specific Gravity
Specific Gravity = = [No Units]
ρ _{water} = 10 ^{3} kg/m ^{3}


Pressure:
a scalar quantity defined as force per unit area:
[SI Units: Pascal = N/m ^{2}]

Pressure of a Static Fluid:
For static fluids of uniform density in a sealed vessel, pressure:
P = ρgh

Absolute Pressure
in a fluid due to gravity somewhere below the surface is given by the equation
P = P_{0} + ρgh
Absolute pressure is zeroreferenced against a perfect vacuum, so it is equal to gauge pressure plus atmospheric pressure.

Gauge Pressure
Gauge pressure is zeroreferenced against ambient air pressure, so it is equal to absolute pressure minus atmospheric pressure. Negative signs are usually omitted.
P_{g} = P_{abs}  P_{environment}

Continuity Equation
V_{1}A_{1} = V_{2}A_{2}

Bernoulli's Equation:
P + ρv ^{2} + ρgh = constant

Archimedes's Principle
difference between object's weight in air and weight in fluid:
F_{buoyant} = ρ_{fluid}gV_{submerged
}

