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The outer boundary of the cell that is made of bilayer of phospholipid molecules with proteins. The membrane is selectively permeable.
- The movement of materials across the cell boundary.
- Passive transport
- Active transport
Pores (cell membrance)
Are lined with small protein molecules and are part of the cell membrance
Proteins (cell membrane)
- Special functions
- First, interact with hormones and help special substances get into the cell. Next, carry out chemical reaction on the surface of the membrane. They carry certain substance across the membrane.
- Depends on the heat energy within the cell to increase the frequency with which molecules move.
The process by which molecules move from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration
- The movement of water across a semipermeable membrane
- Form of diffusion
- The shrinking of the cytoplasm due to the movement of water out of the cell.
- Form of diffusion
- Requires the use of chemical energy that is stored in ATP molecules in the cell
Pinocytosis (cell drinking)
The process of fluid molecules are taken in by cells through the formation of vesicles (pockets) in the cell membrane.
- This the process where solid particles are ingested by the cell.
- Phagocytosis is the way white blood cells ingest bacteria.
Both pinocytosis and phagocytosis are endocytosis, this is because the process let fluid and particles into the cell.
Molecules are forced out of cells. They are carried though the cell surface by vacuoles or vesicles (pockets).
Sodium/potassium ion-exchange pump
This is when sodium in push out of the cell and potassium is forced potassium into the cell. This process involves protein carriers and ATP
The cytoplasm is everything that is outside the nucleus. It has many organelles with and structured by the cytoskeleton.
Is made of microtubules and mircrofilaments
- are long thin, hollow tubules (little tubes)
- 25 nm in diameter
are long protein threads that measure about 6nm in diameter and function in cell movement.
- Network of membranes that form channels, tubes, and flattened
- Rough ER is dotted with ribosomes and smooth ER does not have ribosomes
- the movement of materials throughout the cytoplasm and to the plasma membrane
- synthesis of materials and their packaging and distribution to sites needed.
- Most numerous organelles in a cell
- Site of protein synthesis
- They engaged in the synthesis of proteins the are exported (exocytosis) from the cell.
- They also created proteins to be used in the cell.