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What is the most common birth defect of the male genitalia?
What hormone stimulates spermatogenesis, and where are its receptors found?
- Follicle stimulating hormone
- Sertoli cells with in seminiferous tubules
What cells secrete testosterone, where are they located, and what hormone stimulates secretion?
- Leydig cells
- interstitial tissue between seminiferous tubules
What are the order of events from the beginning of spermatogenesis to ejaculation?
FSH-> sertoli cells -> spermatozoa (64 days)-> epididymus (29 days, spermiogenesis)-> Vas Deferens-> seminal vesicle-> ejaculatory duct-> prostetic urethra-> membranous urethra-> penile urethra
What are the main functions of the sertoli cells?
- Spermatogenesis (support & protect)
- secrete inhibin
- mediates testosterone and FSH
What does the prostate gland add to semen?
What percent of semen comes from the vas deferens, seminal vesicles, and prostate respectively?
- Vas deferens: 10 percent
- Seminal vesicles: 60 percent
- prostate gland: 30 percent
________ occurs in the seminiferous tubules.
________ starts to undergo meiosis?
What does testosterone regulate via negative feedback?
What hormone causes the vas deferens to contract during ejaculation?
What innervation is responsible for gaining and maintaining an erection?
What is the function of the bulbospongiosus?
Contracts to expel semen
Where do seminal vesicles empty into?
Ampulla of Vas Deferens
Where does the mucus inside the urethra come from?
- Urethral glands
- Bulbourethral (cowper's gland)
What cells convert testosterone into estrogen?
Sertoli cells convert it from testosterone
What is inflammation of the spermatic cord called?
Accumulation of fluid in the tunica vaginalis
Varicosity of the pampiniform plexus veins
Accumulation of lymph in the testi
What is prehn's sign?
- elevation of the testi reduces pain
- indication of epididymitis
What type of tumor causes an increase in serum alpha feto protein?
endodermal sinus / yolk sac tumor
What type of tumor testicular tumor presents with pain, metastasis, and increased hCG?
What hormone is increased due to the effects of seminoma?
What is the most common type of testicular cancer?
seminoma (germ cell tumor)
What testicular tumor is found mainly in infancy and earlychildhood?
- endodermal sinus tumor
- AKA: Yolk sac tumor
Faulty closure of urethral fold
hypospadias (ventral surface)
What is more common hypo or epi spadias?
Defect in genital tubercle
epispadias (urethra dorsal surface)
tight unretracted foreskin
tight retracted foreskin
inflammation of the glans penis
What virus is associated with squamous cell carcinoma of the penis?
What symptoms are associated with acute bacterial prostatitis
what symptoms are associated with chronic prostatitis?
- low back pain
- suprapubic discomfort
What is the most common form of prostatitis?
What is the most common site of benign prostetic hyperplasia?
median and lateral lobes (periurethral zone / central zone)
What is pyelonephritis?
What is the most likley cause of prostate carcinoma?
imbalance of estrogens and androgens
What is the most common site of prostate carcinoma?
What type of innervation is needed for ejaculation?
What enzymes does sperm carry to penetrate the ovum?
What is the max sperm count to be considered to have oligospermia?