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The _____ division of the automatic nervous system is said to function during "rest and digest."
Preganglionic fibers leave the CNS and then synapse on:
Preganglionic neurons of the automatic nervous system are located in:
both the brain and the lateral gray horns of the spinal cord
The parasympathetic nervous system is especially active during which physiological state?
Sympathetic preganlionic neurons are _____ and have _____ axons.
Clusters of ganglionic sympathetic neurons that innervate organs in the abdominopelvic region are called ____ ganglia.
Stimulation of the neurons in the celiac ganglion would lead to:
hydrolysis of liver glycogen reserves
are bundles of postganglionic fibers that innervate organs within the thoracic cavity
The suprarenal medullae secrete:
both epinephrine and norepinephrine
Postganglionic sympathetic axons can release the neurotransmitter ______ at their effector junctions.
- - acetylcholine
- - nitric oxide
- - norepinephrine
- - ACh
Stimulation of a1 adrenergic receptors by norepinephrine results in:
release of calcium ions from intracellular stores
A certain drug decreases heart rate by blocking a receptor on cardiac pacemaker cells. This drug probably binds to _____ receptors.
Ganglionic neurons in the suprarenal gland:
release epinephrine into blood capillaries
Intramural ganglia in the digestive, urinary, and reproductive organs are innervated by the ____ nerves.
open chemically-gated sodium ion channels
Drugs that block nicotinic receptors would be:
autonomic blocking agents
Mary accidentally ate poison mushrooms that contain muscarine. What symptoms would you expect to observe?
- - sweating
- - diarrhea
- - salivation
- - very low heart rate
A decrease in the autonomic tone of the smooth muscle in a blood vessel would result in:
an increase in blood flow through the vessel
Long-term memories that are with you for a lifetime are called:
Based on stimulation studies, the "headquarters" of the reticular activating system appears to be based in the:
The brain waves produced by normal adults while resting with their eyes closed are _____ waves.
After arousal by a sensory stimulus, consciousness can be maintained by positive feedback, because of activity in the:
- - cerebral cortex
- - motor pathways
- - sensory pathways
- - basal nuclei
Hallucinogenic drugs, such as LSD, function by:
stimulating serotonin receptors
Changes in the central nervous system that accompany aging include:
- - reduction in brain size and weight
- - decreased blood flow to the brain
- - decrease in the number of neurons
- - changes in synaptic organization in the brain