Roots of Life: Chapter 2 Section 1: Viruses
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a tiny, nonliving particle that enters and then reproduces inside a living cell
WHAT CHARACTERISTICS TO VIRUSES SHARE?
- 1. non living
- 2. they are NOT cells
- 3. do NOT use their own energy to row or respond to their surroundings
- 4. cannot make their own food, take in food, or produce wastes
- 5. like organisms, they CAN multiply
- 6. acts like a parasite
VIRUSES CAN ONLY MULTIPLY WHEN. . .
inside a living cell
an organism that a virus enters and multiplies inside.
it provides a source of energy for a virus or another organism.
an organism that lives on or in a host and causes it harm
WHAT SHAPES ARE VIRUSES?
- rod shaped
- like bricks, threads, or bullets
- complex, robot-like shapes
- tube shaped
a virus that infects bacteria
it means "bacteria eater"
VIRUSES ARE MEASURED IN . . .
nanometers because they are so small
HOW ARE VIRUSES NAMED?
- 1. after the disease they cause (polio)
- 2. after the organisms they infect (tobacco mosaic)
- 3. after the person/people who discovered it (Epstein-Barr (mono))
TWO BASIC PARTS OF ALL VIRUSES
- protein coat that protects the virus
- inner core made of genetic material
WHAT INFORMATION DOES VIRUS'S GENETIC MATERIAL CONTAIN?
the genetic instructions for making new viruses
LIKE KEYS, A VIRUS'S PROTEINS FIT ONLY INTO . . .
certain locks, or proteins, on the surface of the host's cell.
DUE TO THE LOCK-AND-KEY ACTION OF A VIRUS, A CERTAIN VIRUS CAN ONLY ATTACH TO. . .
one or a few types of cells.
HOW OD VIRUSES MULTIPLY?
- 1. attach to host cell
- 2 enters cell
- 3 genetic material then takes over cell's functions
- 4 it instructs the cell to produce virus's proteins and genetic material
- 5 the protein and genetic material assemble into new virus (immediate or hidden)
WHAT IS AN ACTIVE VIRUS?
after a virus enters a cell, an active virus immediately goes into action
the virus enters a cell and remains hidden for awhile (cold sore virus)
HOW ARE VIRUSES BAD?
they can cause diseases
-cold, flu, AIDS in humans
-rabies and distemper in dogs and cats
HOW ARE VIRUSES USEFUL?
- 1 gene therapy
- 2 injections to protect animals
WHAT IS GENE THERAPY?
a medical technique where scientists can use a virus to treat certain disorders. It works by adding genetic material to a virus to deliver the genetic material
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