Patho exam 1

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Patho exam 1
2013-07-25 14:46:56
accelerated patho

patho stuff for exam 1
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  1. Oxidative phosporylation
    better energy

    metabolic pathway that uses energy released by the oxidation of nutrients to produce ATP

    Terminal process of cellular respiration
  2. pH gradient
    measurement of H+ concentration
  3. passive diffusion
    low [ ] of SOLUTES to high [ ]
  4. atrophy
    muscle loss
  5. hypertrophy
    increase muscle
  6. hyperplasia
    increased cell production
  7. metaplasia
    mature differentiated cell transforming into another differentiated cell.

    Can be reversable
  8. Dysplasia
    mature cell transformation that is irreversable
  9. Reversible cell injury

    2 patterns of cell injury
    impairs cell function but does not cause cell death

    cellular swelling and fatty change
  10. cellular swelling
    impairment of the energy dependent Na/K ATPase membrane pump
  11. Fatty change
    linked to intracellular accumulation of fat
  12. **Infarction**
    Tissue death from deprivation of arterial blood and therefore deprivation of O2
  13. What does Hypoxia do to aerobic and anaerobic glycolosis?
    aerobic= metabolism stops and less ATP is made. NA/K pumps can't work fast enough and cells swell with H2O

    Anaerobic= is used and therefore Lactic acid is produced with damages cells.
  14. most common free radical?
  15. Ischemia causes Mitoc. damage that leads to...
    anaerobic glycolysis and calcium deposits
  16. apoptosis
    programmed cell death
  17. necrotic cell death
    unregulated cell death caused by injury, swelling, rupture, inflammation, etc.
  18. dry gangrene
    lack of arterial blood supply but venous supply can carry fluid away from tissue.

    will dry out and fall off
  19. wet gangrene
    lack of venous flow lets fluid accumulate in the tissue.

    gross, stinky, and needs surgical amputation.
  20. Gas gangrene
    C-diff infection produces toxins and H2S bubbles. Needs amputated immediatly
  21. codon
    each set of 3 specific amino acids (DNA/genes)
  22. Does DNA leave the nucleus during replication?
    NO, mRNA leaves
  23. What is substituted for Thymine in RNA?
  24. Introns vs. Exons
    Introns are the "fake/extra" RNA sections that are chopped off before leaving the nucleus

    Exons are the actual genes left after leaving the nucleus
  25. mitosis
    exact replication of parent cell (liver cell into another liver cell)
  26. Telomeres
    • DNA sequences at the ends of the chromosomes.
    • Like a string that is used up little by little
  27. Meiosis
    chromosomes duplicate

    production of two exact same daughter cells containing 1/2 of original cell
  28. crossing over
    when chromosome pairs line up during meiosis, they can exchange ends

    each of the four resulting gametes will have a different combination of genes
  29. Linkage
    Two genes that are close together on the chromosome are called "linked"

    linked genes are rarely separated by crossing-over and therefore are usually inherited together
  30. homozygous
    all of your copies of a gene are alike
  31. heterozygous
    all of your gene copies differ
  32. carrier
    you are heterozygous for a recessive trait but do not show it
  33. hemizygous
    you have only one copy of a gene
  34. polygenic
    many genes could effect one trait
  35. multifactorial
    both multiple genes and the environment could effect one trait
  36. epistasis
    one gene could mask the effect of another
  37. complementary
    one gene might depend on another
  38. collaborative
    2 genes together might create a new phenotype
  39. Marfan
    connective tissue disorder (spider hands disease)
  40. 2 Autosomal DOMINATE disorders
    • Marfan
    • Brugada syndrome
  41. Brugata syndrome
    unexpected sudden death
  42. 2 autosomal RECESSIVE disorders
    • PKU (phenylketonuria)
    • Tays-sachs
  43. PKU
    lack of enzyme that converts phenylalanine into tyrosine, causing mental retardation
  44. Tays-Sachs
    Lysosomal storage disorder causing death by age 4

    Both the male and female must be carriers**
  45. 2 sex linked disorders
    Fragile x

  46. Neoplasm
    • "New Growth"
    • growth is random and continuous
    • they proliferate to form new tissue
  47. What occurs to both daughter cells of a dividing stem cell?
    One daughter retains the stem cell characteristics

    The other becomes a progenitor cell that proceeds through differentiation. This one has *self renewal and potency*
  48. 3 types of stem cell potency


  49. Unipotent
    give rise to ONE type of differentiated cell
  50. Oligopotent
    produce small number of cells
  51. Pluripotent
    produce numerous cell types
  52. Proto-oncogenes
    Normal cells that become Cancer causing agents if they mutate

    Become "Oncogenes"
  53. Oncogenes
    Name of mutated Proto-oncogenes
  54. Cyclins do what in cell division?
    Provide checkpoints
  55. Tumor-suppressor genes
    growth suppressing genes that inhibit proliferation of cells in a tumor
  56. Any cell can mutate
    Any cell can mutate
  57. benign tumor
    when differentiated cells mutate

    Do not steal surrounding blood supply, but can harm organs by pressing on them
  58. Malignant tumor
    when undifferentiated cell mutate, dividing rapidly

    Steal surrounding blood supply
  59. Naming tumors:

    Benign VS. Malignant
    B= tissue name + "oma"

    • M= tissue name + "carcinoma" (epithelial)
    • ¬† = tissue name + "sarcoma" (mesenchymal)
  60. Adenoma
    benign tumor of gland
  61. Adenocarcinoma
    malignant tumor of epithelial gland tissue
  62. osteoma
    benign tumor of bone tissue
  63. Papilloma
    benign microscopic or macroscopic finger-like projection growing on a surface
  64. Metastasis
    Cells in a PRIMARY tumor develop ability to puncture hole into and out of blood vessel to move to another location.

    Secondary tumor cells are NOT the same as primary cells.
  65. Allostasis
    maintain stability through change
  66. 3 stages of G.A.S
    • 1. Alarm
    • 2. Resistance/Adaption
    • 3. Fatigue/Exhaustion
  67. cortisol
    "stress hormone"

    • regulates stress response.
    • increase glucose.
    • fight or flight
  68. ADH is also called...
    vasopressin, and it causes vasoconstriction
  69. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone pathway
    helps control BP during activation of the sympathetic (flight/flight) response

    also stimulates thirst
  70. Renin
    breaks things down (proteins maybe?)
  71. Signs and Symptoms of G.A.S
    • elevated BP and heart rate
    • increase respiration
    • pupil dilation
    • decreased urine, appetite, and GI motility
  72. 3 ways stress can affect the immune system
    Decrease immune cell production

    Decrease thymus activity

    Changing the kind of immune cells produced
  73. acute stress caused damage to what?
  74. most significant difference between Chronic and Post-traumatic stress?
    In PTS, cortisol levels are DECREASED
  75. 3 forms of Thermoregulation
    Skin temp

    core body temp

  76. Skin temp
    surface temp

    relatively unreliable
  77. core body temp
    reflects balance between heat gain and loss

    measured with rectal thermometer
  78. Hypotahalamus
    thermal control center

    receives info from central and peripheral receptors and compares them to a set temp point
  79. what enters the brain that causes chills during a fever?
    pyrogenic compounds
  80. Hyperthermia
    Increased temp without change in the set point of the hypothalamus
  81. Difference between fever and hyperthermia
    The set point of the hypothalamus raises (changes) in a FEVER but not hyperhermia
  82. Hypothermia
    The temp point is not set high enough

    Body temp is <35° C

    Signs and symptoms are hard to ID in young and old people
  83. Malignant Hyperthermia: how is heat generated?
    uncontrolled skeletal muscle contractions
  84. elements of Hematopoeitic system
    • All the blood cells and their precursors
    • Bone Marrow
    • Lymphoid tissue
  85. Plasma has clotting factors
    Plasma has clotting factors
  86. Ganulocytes

    • Basophils
    • Eosinophils
    • Neutrophils
  87. Basophils
    Heparin and Histamines
  88. Eosinophils
    allergy and parasitic infections
  89. Neutrophils
    Primary pathogen fighting cells

    1st to rise in number during infection
  90. band cell
    immature neutrophil
  91. erythropoeitin
    manufactured by the kidneys

    stimulates RBC production
  92. Thrombopoietin
    platelet production
  93. granulocyte colony-stimulating factor
    WBC production
  94. plasma****
    plays important role in nutrition and waste transport and immunity
  95. Hemostasis
    keeping blood in the blood stream
  96. Vitamin used in the clotting factors
    Vit. K
  97. 1st step of clotting after an injury
    Vessel spasm*****
  98. How does Aspirin work?
    It prevents the release of thromboxane A2, NOT make platelets sticky (I think she meant slippery...)
  99. What steps use Calcium in the clotting cascade?
    Every step EXCEPT 1 and 2
  100. Warfin mechanism
    interfere with prothrombin --> thrombin reaction
  101. Heparin mechanism
    interfere with prothrombin --> thrombin AND fibrin --> fibrinogen reaction
  102. are Warfin and Heparin clot busters?
    No, only preventives 
  103. Intrinsic pathway is activated by what?
    Factor XII
  104. Extrinsic pathway is activated by what?
    tissue damage
  105. Vascular defect does NOT necessarily mean abnormal lab values
    Vascular defect does NOT necessarily mean abnormal lab values
  106. thrombocytopenia
    decrease in platelet levels
  107. 4 steps of erythopoiesis
    • 1. decreased blood oxygen
    • 2. Kidney secretes erythopoietin
    • 3. bone marrow stimulated
    • 4. RBC production
  108. RBC broken down where?
  109. Hematocrit

    Increase of= ?
    Decrease of= ?
    cell to liquid ratio

    Increase = dehydration, b/c higher [ ] than liquid volume

    Decrease= overhydration
  110. Mean Cell Volume
    RBC size

    micro or macroscopic
  111. retuculocyte
    immature RBC
  112. should bilirubin be conjugated or unconjugated?
    Conjugated in the liver.

    Unconj. can be toxic
  113. signs of RBC's broken down outside the spleen?
    • red plasma
    • dark urine
  114. Anemia
    deficiency of the number of RBC's and amount of Hgb present
  115. Iron deficiency anemia
    most common blood disease in infant and youth
  116. 4 types of anemia
    • 1. Iron-deficiency
    • 2. Megaloblastic= Vitamin B12 deficiency
    • 3. Aplastic= bone marrow depression, fewer and smaller RBC's, plateles, and WBC's (all myeloid cells)
    • 4. Chronic disease anemias
  117. Vitamin B12 anemia is also called?
    Pernicious anemia
  118. Thalassemias
    Common in Mediterranean areas

    Causes hemopoietic bone enlargement and easy fractures
  119. Neoplasms that arise in the bone marrow
  120. Neoplasms that arise in the lymph tissue
  121. Leukopenia
    decreased WBC
  122. Neutropenia
    decreased neutrophils
  123. what will you see with myelocytic leukemias?
    inappropriate bleeding and over production of abnormal monocytes and granulocytes
  124. what will you see with lymphocytic leukemias?
    overproduction of abnormal immune cells, spleen and lymphoid tissue inflitration

    Night Sweats***
  125. Difference between acute and chronic leukemias
    A= sudden onset, stormy signs and symptoms, depression. Difficult to treat

    C= seen in old people who have lived with and adapted to it
  126. sign and symptoms of abnormal WBC production (1-7)
    • fever
    • fatigue
    • pain
    • swelling
    • Increased heart rate, BP, and liver size
  127. 2 categories of lymphomas
    Hodgkins and NON-Hodgkins
  128. Hodgkins VS. Non-Hodgkins lymphomas
    H= **Reed-Sternberg cells present

    NH= No RS Cells. More diverse
  129. Myeloma
    cancer of Plasma cells