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Responsibilities of the Endocrine System
- -growth and development
- -body defenses
- -electrolyte, water, and nutrient balance in blood
- -cellular metabolism
- -hormones are chemicals secreted by cells that regulate the metabolic function of other cells
- -hormones classified as:
- -amino acid based: includes amines (modified amino acids), peptides (short chains of amino acids), and proteins.
- -steroids: lipid molecules, derived from cholesterol
controls the release of hormones from the pituitary gland
Pituitary Gland (hypophysis)
The major endocrine gland.
It is important in controlling growth and development and the functioning of the other endocrine glands.
- composed of:
- -adenohypophysis- originates in the embryo
- -neurohypophysis- part of the brain
a hormone secreted by the pituitary gland that is involved in pigmentation changes in some animals
- functions-darkens skin pigment by stimulating melanocytes to produce pigment melanin
, which is also called somatotropic hormone
- functions- stimulates growth of body
- -stimulates body cells to increase production of proteins
- -stimulates growth of epiphyseal plates of skeleton
- -signals liver to secrete insulin-like growth factor which acts together with GH
- functions-prompts thyroid gland to secrete own hormone (thyroid hormone);controlling metabolic rate
- effects-help people cope with stress
- functions-hormone from anterior pituitary that influences the activity of the adrenal cortex
- functions-hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary that stimulates the maturation of ovarian follicles in females and the production of sperm in males.
effects-in females, aids maturation of follicles in the ovary and triggers ovulation. In males, it signals the interstitial cells of the testis to secrete testosterone.
functions-hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary
pituitary hormone that stimulates and maintains the secretion of milk
- functions- hormone produced by the hypothalamus and released by the posterior part of the pituitary gland; stimulates kidney to resorb more water
- effects-stimulates contraction of the uterus during childbirth and ejection of milk during nursing.
- funcitons-hormone produced by the hypothalamus and released by the posterior pituitary
- -butterfly shaped
- -inferior to the larynx
- -thyroid hormone: T4, T3
- -small, relative to other endocrine glands
- -posterior aspect of thyroid gland
- -produces parathyroid hormone (PTH)
Adrenal (suprarenal) Glands
- -pyramid shaped glands perched atop the kidneys
- -adrenal cortex produces:
- -adrenal medulla produces epinephrine
- -composed of endo and exocrine gland cells
- -islets of Langerhans produces:
- Ovaries produce:
- Testes produce testosterone
- -pine cone shaped
- -hangs from rood of 3rd ventricle
- -produces melatonin--signals body to prepare to sleep
- -located deep to the sternum
- -large in infants and children; diminishes in adults
Other Endocrine Structures
- -GI tract
Disorders of Endocrine Glands
- -pituitary gland:
- -pituitary dwarfism
- -diabetes mellitus
- -thyroid gland:
- -thyroid hormone deficiency
- -adrenal cortex
What steroid hormone is secreted by the skin?
What two diseases are caused by disorders of the adrenal cortex?
Cushing's disease or syndrome and Addison's disease
What hormones are involved in diabetes mellitus?
- -insulin (helps muscles, etc. absorb glucose - p. 767)
- -glucagon (raises glucose levels - wikipedia - it's not mentioned in the book)