Endocrine System

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alb229
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227965
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Endocrine System
Updated:
2013-07-24 00:59:59
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BYU Human Anatomy Endocrine System
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BYU Human Anatomy Endocrine System-Chapter 25
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  1. Responsibilities of the Endocrine System
    • -reproduction
    • -growth and development
    • -body defenses
    • -electrolyte, water, and nutrient balance in blood
    • -cellular metabolism

    worksheet
  2. Hormones
    • -hormones are chemicals secreted by cells that regulate the metabolic function of other cells
    • -hormones classified as:
    •    -amino acid based: includes amines (modified amino acids), peptides (short chains of amino acids), and proteins.
    •    -steroids: lipid molecules, derived from cholesterol

    worksheet
  3. Hypothalamus
    controls the release of hormones from the pituitary gland

    worksheet
  4. Pituitary Gland (hypophysis)
    The major endocrine gland.

    It is important in controlling growth and development and the functioning of the other endocrine glands.

    • composed of:
    •   -adenohypophysis- originates in the embryo
    •   -neurohypophysis- part of the brain

    worksheet
  5. MSH
    Melanocyte-stimulating hormone

    a hormone secreted by the pituitary gland that is involved in pigmentation changes in some animals

    • effects
    • functions-darkens skin pigment by stimulating melanocytes to produce pigment melanin

    756

    Adenohypophyseal Hormones
  6. GH=SH
    -growth hormone, which is also called somatotropic hormone.

    • effects-
    • functions- stimulates growth of body
    •                  -stimulates body cells to increase production of proteins
    •                  -stimulates growth of epiphyseal plates of skeleton
    •              -signals liver to secrete insulin-like growth factor which acts together with GH

    755
  7. TSH
    Thyrotropic cells

    • effects-
    • functions-prompts thyroid gland to secrete own hormone (thyroid hormone);controlling metabolic rate

    755
  8. ACTH
    Adrenocorticotropic Hormone

    • effects-help people cope with stress
    • functions-hormone from anterior pituitary that influences the activity of the adrenal cortex

    glossary 781,755
  9. FSH
    Follicle-stimulating hormone

    • effects-
    • functions-hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary that stimulates the maturation of ovarian follicles in females and the production of sperm in males.

    glossary 785
  10. LH
    Luteinizing Hormone

    effects-in females, aids maturation of follicles in the ovary and triggers ovulation.  In males, it signals the interstitial cells of the testis to secrete testosterone.

    functions-hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary

    glossary 786
  11. PRL
    Prolactin

    pituitary hormone that stimulates and maintains the secretion of milk

    internet
  12. ADH
    Antidiuretic Hormone

    • effects-
    • functions- hormone produced by the hypothalamus and released by the posterior part of the pituitary gland; stimulates kidney to resorb more water

    glossary 782
  13. Oxytocin
    • effects-stimulates contraction of the uterus during childbirth and ejection of milk during nursing.
    • funcitons-hormone produced by the hypothalamus and released by the posterior pituitary

    glossary 788
  14. Thyroid Gland
    • -butterfly shaped
    • -inferior to the larynx
    • -produces:
    •    -thyroid hormone: T4, T3
    •    -calcitonin

    worksheet
  15. Parathyroid Glands
    • -small, relative to other endocrine glands
    • -posterior aspect of thyroid gland
    • -produces parathyroid hormone (PTH)

    worksheet
  16. Adrenal (suprarenal) Glands
    • -pyramid shaped glands perched atop the kidneys
    • -adrenal cortex produces:
    •     -androgens
    •     -cortisol
    •     -aldosterone
    • -adrenal medulla produces epinephrine

    worksheet
  17. Pancreas
    • -composed of endo and exocrine gland cells
    • -islets of Langerhans produces:
    •      -insulin
    •      -glucagon
    •      -somatostatin

    worksheet
  18. Gonads
    • Ovaries produce:
    •    -estrogens
    •    -progesterone
    • Testes produce testosterone

    worksheet
  19. Pineal Gland
    • -pine cone shaped
    • -hangs from rood of 3rd ventricle
    • -produces melatonin--signals body to prepare to sleep

    worksheet
  20. Thymus
    • -located deep to the sternum
    • -large in infants and children; diminishes in adults
    • -produces:
    •    -thymopoietins
    •    -thymosins

    worksheet
  21. Other Endocrine Structures
    • -heart
    • -GI tract
    • -placenta
    • -kidney
    • -skin

    worksheet
  22. Disorders of Endocrine Glands
    • -pituitary gland:
    •   -acromegaly
    •   -pituitary dwarfism
    • -pancreas:
    •   -diabetes mellitus
    • -thyroid gland:
    •   -hypothyroidism
    •   -thyroid hormone deficiency
    • -adrenal cortex

    worksheet
  23. What steroid hormone is secreted by the skin?
    Vitamin D

    worksheet
  24. What two diseases are caused by disorders of the adrenal cortex?
    Cushing's disease or syndrome and Addison's disease

    worksheet
  25. What hormones are involved in diabetes mellitus?
    • -insulin (helps muscles, etc. absorb glucose - p. 767)
    • -glucagon (raises glucose levels - wikipedia - it's not mentioned in the book)

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