Anatomy and Physiology- Unit 1 Exam

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Anatomy and Physiology- Unit 1 Exam
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2013-07-24 01:31:37
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body organization cellular function histology integumentary system
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Unit 1 Exam
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  1. anatomy
    structure of the body
  2. physiology
    function of the body
  3. gross anatomy
    being able to examine a structure with the seeing eye
  4. inspection
    looking at the body's appearance
  5. palpation
    feeling a structure with the hands
  6. auscultation
    listening to natural sounds of the body
  7. percussion
    tapping on the body; feeling for abnormal resistance
  8. dissection
    cutting and separation to tissues
  9. hierarchy of complexity
    • organism
    • organ system
    • organ
    • tissue
    • cell
    • organelles 
    • macromolecules
    • molecules
    • atoms
  10. organism
    single, complete living individual
  11. organ system
    group of organs with a unique collective function
  12. organ
    structure composed of 2 or more tissue types that work together to carry out a particular function
  13. tissue
    mass of similar cells and cell products
  14. cell
    smallest unit of organism; nothing is considered life after cell
  15. organelles
    microscopic structures
  16. molecules
    • DNA
    • fats 
    • proteins
    • carbohydrates
  17. atom
    smallest particles
  18. integumentary
    • sweat glands
    • vitamin D synthesis
    • skin, hair, nails
  19. skeletal
    • bones
    • cartilage
    • blood formation
    • movement and support
  20. nervous
    • nerves
    • spline 
    • cranial nerves
  21. muscular
    • skeletal muscles
    • maintains posture
  22. endocrine
    hormone production
  23. circulatory
    heart, cardiovascular
  24. lymphatic
    • lymph nodes
    • spline
  25. respiratory
    • absorption of oxygen
    • lungs
    • nose
    • pharynx
  26. urinary
    • bladder
    • kidneys
    • ureters
  27. digestive
    • (ascending, transverse, descending)
    • nutrient breakdown 
    • absorption of sigmoid
  28. reproduction
    secretion of sex hormones
  29. four tissue types
    • epithelium
    • connective
    • nervous
    • muscle
  30. eight characteristics of life
    • organization- metabolize energy
    • cellular composition- growth
    • metabolism- anabolic building up, catabolic breaking down; absorb and digest fuel
    • responsiveness- being able to respond to enviornment (homeostasis)
    • homeostasis- body's ability to detect change
    • development- excreting internally and externally; any change in form or function over life time of organism
    • reproduction- passing genes onto next generation (life)
    • evolution- genetic change from generation to generation
  31. homeostasis
    body's ability to detect change, activate mechanisms to oppose it maintains internal, except outside
  32. set point
    • the average value for a given variable
    • PH level body temperature
  33. negative feedback
    • a process in which the body senses a change and activates mechanisms that negate or reverse it. 
    • if your body over heats, you start to sweat to cool down.
  34. positive feedback
    pushing away from homeostasis that leads to a greater change in the same direction
  35. cell types
    • squamous
    • cuboidal
    • columnar
    • stellate
    • ovoid
    • discoid
    • fusiform
    • fibroous
  36. squamous
    a thin, flat scaly shape often with a bulge description like a "sunny side up" egg.
  37. cuboidal
    squarish looking, equal in height and width, liver cells
  38. columnar
    taller than wide (rectangular) inner lining cells of the stomach and intestine
  39. stellate
    having multiple pointed processes projecting from the body of the cell, star like shape; nerve cells
  40. ovoid
    oval; egg cells and white blood cells
  41. discoid
    disc shaped (donut); red blood cells
  42. fusiform
    spindle shaped; made longer with a thick middle and tapered ends; smooth muscle cells
  43. fibrous
    long, slender, and threadlike; skeletal muscle cells
  44. why is the plasma membrane selectively permeable membrane?
    it controls what goes in and out.
  45. percentages of phospholipid membrane
    • 98% lipid
    • 2% protein
    • 75% lipids are phospholipids
    • 20% cholesterol
    • 5% glycolipids
  46. glycolipids
    helps for glycolax
  47. importance of cholesterol
    • abundant in cell membranes
    • maintains integrity
    • maintains fluidity
    • helps secure important proteins
    • increases membrane fluidity separates phospholipids
  48. glycolcalyx
    • fuzzy coat around plasma membrane
    • distinguishes its own healthy cells from foreign invaders
    • used to detect diseased cells and viruses
    • it contains cell adhesive molecules that guides cells in embryonic development
  49. integral protein
    penetrate into the phospholipid bilayer or all the way through it
  50. peripheral protein
    stuck on one side of the membrane
  51. 7 functions of the membrane proteins
    • receptors
    • second-messenger systems
    • enzymes
    • channel proteins
    • carriers
    • cell identity markers
    • cell adhesive molecules
  52. receptors
    communication between cell and outside worlds
  53. second-messenger systems
    triggers within a cell that produce a second messenger to the cytoplasm
  54. enzymes
    • used to get rid of excess chemicals and hormones after physiological process is complete
    • can create second messengers
  55. channel protein
    passage that allows water and hydrophillic solutes to move through the membrane
  56. carriers
    • used as pumps
    • bind to solutes and transfer them to the other side of the membrane
  57. cell identity markers
    distinguish the body's cells from foreign cells
  58. cell adhesive molecules
    membrane proteins that bind cells to one another
  59. microvilli
    • extensions of the plasma membrane that serve primarily to increase a cell's surface area
    • best developed cells specialized for absorption
    • found in digestive system
  60. cilia
    • hairlike processes
    • helps move something into one direction
    • serves as the cells antenna
    • found in inner ear, respiratory tract
  61. flagella
    • whip like tail of sperm
    • move anywhere
    • much longer than cilium
    • found in sperm
  62. filtration
    • a physical pressure forces fluid through a selectively permeable membrane
    • dissolves solutes
  63. diffusion
    • moves particles from high to low concentration 
    • like passing gas
  64. 5 factors of diffusion
    • steepness
    • temperature
    • molecular weight
    • surface area
    • permeability
  65. simple diffusion
    a substance freely passes through the membrane without the aid of an intermediary structure from high to low concentration
  66. facilitated diffusion
    substances can pass through the membrane with the assistance of special transport proteins
  67. osmosis
    • the net movement of water from high to low concentration through one selectively permeable membrane to another through the hydration sphere
    • must be 100% between solutes and water
  68. concentration gradient
    • when the concentration of a substance differs from one point to another
    • low to high- against gradient
    • high to low- with gradient
  69. ozmylarity
    total concentration of solutes in a solution
  70. hypotonic
    • solution swells
    • lower concentration of solute on the outside of the cell
    • 15% solute---->0% solute
    • 85% water<---- 100% water
  71. hypertonic
    • solution shrinks
    • higher concentration of solute on outside of cell
    • 10% solute---->90% solute
    • 90% water<---- 10% water
  72. isotonic
    • equilibrium
    • same concentration of solute on both inside and out
    • 50% solute       50% solute
    • 50% water       50% water 
  73. lyse
    • breaking down of a cell
    • occurs when a cell is placed in a hypotonic solution bc it will absorb water due to the concentration gradient and may burst
  74. crenate
    when a cell shrivels due to loss of water and often occurs in hypertonic solution bc of osmosis the cell loses water
  75. vesicle
    a small bubble like sac enclosed by a lipid bilayer used for transport (cell container)
  76. exocytosis
    cell releases materials to the outside by discharging them as membrane bounded vesicles
  77. phagocytosis
    a form of endocytosis in which a cell surrounds a foreign particle with pseudopods and engulfs it (cell eating)
  78. pinocytosis
    plasma membrane sinks inward and imbibes droplets of ECF (cell drinking)
  79. receptor mediated endocytosis
    • a process in which certain molecules in the ECF bind to receptors in the plasma membrane
    • these receptors gather together, the membrane sinks inward at that point and the molecules become incorporated into vesicles in the cytoplasm
    • allows a cell to be selective through phago and pinocytosis
  80. endocytosis
    vesicular processes that bring matter into a cell
  81. specificity
    the ability to interact with individual antigens in immune response 
  82. saturation point
    the stage at which no more of a substance can be absorbed into a vapor or dissolved into a solution
  83. histology
    study of tissues
  84. functions of the epithelium tissue
    • protection
    • filtration
    • absorption
    • secretion
    • excretion
  85. where does epithelium tissue exist in the body?
    covers the body's surface, lines cavities
  86. function of basement membrane
    • serves to anchor an epithelium to the connective tissue below it
    • regulates the exchange of materials between the epithelium and the underlying tissues
    • binds growth factors
  87. simple epithelium
    • only one layer of cells 
    • connected to the basement membrane
  88. stratified epithelium
    2-20 layers of cells
  89. simple squamous epithelium
    • thin, scaly, one layer
    • mediators of filtration and diffusion
    • allow for easy transmembrane movement in small molecules
    • found in heart and lungs
  90. simple cuboidal epithelium
    • squarish or round cells
    • lining the surface of various ducts of various glands
    • able to provide a layer of protection from abrasion, foreign particles, invaded bacteria
    • located in kidney tubes and mammary cells
  91. simple columnar
    • tall narrow cells used for protection
    • specialize to secrete mucus that coats and protects the surrounding surface from damage
    • located throughout organs
    • one layer
  92. pseudostratified columnar epithelium
    • secretes and propels mucus
    • located in respiratory tract
    • all layers touch the basement membrane
  93. keratinized epithelium
    • layer of dead squamous cells
    • lots of vesicles resisting and protecting the epithelium to traction and friction
    • no water
    • located in epidermis, palms and soles
    • retards water loss through the skin
    • resists abrasion and penetration by pathogenic organisms
  94. nonkeratinized epithelium
    • lacks layer of dead squamous cells
    • allows diffusion of materials through the cell junctions and cell's body
    • located in tongue, oral mucus, esophagus, anal canal, vagina
    • resists abrasions and penetration by pathogenic organisms
  95. stratified cuboidal epithelium
    • more than one layer
    • not all layers touch the basement membrane
    • cube shaped, found in sweat glands and follicles of the ovaries
  96. stratified columnar epithelium
    • tall and narrow 
    • found in phalanx, male urethra
    • more than one layer but not all touch the basement membrane
  97. categories of connective tissues
    • fibrous
    • supportive (cartilage and bone)
    • blood
    • actecose 
  98. 8 functions of connective tissues
    • binding of organs
    • support
    • physical protection
    • movement
    • storage
    • heat production
    • transport
    • immune protection
  99. binding of organs
    tendons bind muscles to bone, ligaments bind one bone to another
  100. support
    • bones support the body
    • cartilage supports the ears, nose, trachea
  101. physical protection
    • bones and cartilage
    • the cramium, ribs and the sternum
    • protect delicate organs like brain and lungs
  102. movement
    bones and cartilage provide the lever system for body movement
  103. storage
    • fat is the body's major energy reserve
    • calcium and phosphate for electrolytes
  104. heat production
    metabolism of brown fat generates heat in infants and children
  105. transport
    blood transports gasses, nutrients, wastes hormones and blood cells
  106. immune protection
    connective tissues cell attack foreign invaders
  107. 3 types of fibrous connective tissue
    • collagenous fibers
    • elastic fibers
    • reticular fibers
  108. collagenous fibers
    • made of collagen and consist of bundles of fibrils 
    • resists stretching
  109. elastic fibers
    • made of elastin and are stretchable 
    • coiled, stretch and return back to normal state
  110. reticular fibers
    join connective tissues to other tissues
  111. ground substance
    • contains water, gasses, minerals, nutrients, wastes, hormones and other chemicals
    • protect cells from injury
    • GAG
  112. adhesive glycoproteins
    bind tissue components together 
  113. arelar
    • loose arrangements of collagenous and elastic fibers
    • loosely binds epithelia to deeper tissues
    • allows passage of nerves and blood through other tissues
    • underlies all epithelia surrounding blood vessels, nerves, visceral layers of the pericardium and pleura
    • highly vascular , infenction fighting, glucocytes
  114. recticular
    • loose network of reticular fibers and cells
    • glycoproteins and fibral blasts
    • infiltrated with numerous leukocytes, esp lymphocytes
    • located in lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, and bone marrow
  115. dense regular
    • densely packed, parallel
    • wavy collagen fibers
    • located in tendons and ligaments
    • ligaments bind bones together and resist stress
    • predictable
  116. dense irregular
    • densely packed, collagen fibers running in random directions
    • located in deeper portion of skin
    • durable, hard to tear
    • unpredictable stresses
    • skin capsule around organs
  117. adipocytes
    • a fat cell
    • connective tissue cell that has differentiated and become specialized in the synthesis manufacture and storage of fat
  118. adipose
    • has adipocytes
    • main function is to store energy in form of lipids
  119. white fat
    • is the more abundant and found in adult body
    • insulation, cushions organs, andchors organs
    • heat generating not linked to ATP
  120. brown fat
    • found in infants and children
    • stores lipids in the form of globules
  121. chondroblasts
    produces cartilage which secrete the matrix and surround themselves with it until they become trapped in little cavities called lacunae
  122. hyaline cartilage
    • clear, glassy appearance
    • found in diarthroidal joints covering long bones
    • found in nose, trachea
    • covers the costal ribs
  123. fibro cartilage
    • found in the intervetebral disks of the spine
    • covering of the mandibular condyle in the temporal mandibular joint and meniscus of knee
  124. elastic cartilage
    • flexible
    • found in the ear
  125. why is it difficult for cartilage to heal?
    • cartilage is avascular meaning no blood vessels
    • lack of blood flow creates a low healing process
  126. what are the 3 forms of elements in blood
    • red blood cells (erythrocytes)
    • white blood cells (leukocytes)
    • platelets
  127. 5 types of leukocytes
    • neutrophils
    • monocytes
    • eosinophils
    • basophils
    • lymphocytes
  128. neutrophils
    • destroy bacteria
    • increase when a bacterial infection is formed
  129. monocytes
    • transform into macrophajas, phagocytosis
    • increase in viral infection
  130. eosinophils
    • a granular leukocyte having a nucleus with two lobes connected by a thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules of uniform size
    •  
  131. basophils
    • secrete histomine, avaso dialates 
    • increases blood flow to area
  132. lymphocytes
    • antibodies
    • destroy cancer cells
  133. function of the nervous tissue
    • receive stimuli and conduct impulses to and from parts of the body
    • long and string like
    • communicating chemically and electrically
  134. neuron
    • a nerve cell
    • electrically excitable cell specialized for producing and transmitting action potentials and secreting chemicals that stimulate adjacent cells
  135. neurosoma
    the body of a neuron
  136. dendrites
    • process of a neuron that receives information from other cells or from enviornmental stimuli and conducts signal to the soma
    • outgoing messages 
  137. axon
    process of a neuron that transmits actioon potentials also called a nerve fiber
  138. function of muscular tissue
    • brings movement and mechanical work in various parts of the body
    • exert physical force on other tissues, organs, and fluids
  139. smooth muscle tissue
    • located in walls of hollow visceral organs 
    • involuntary
    • nonstrided
  140. skeletal muscle tissue
    • attached to the skeleton 
    • voluntary 
    • contain nuclei, overlapping proton fillament
    • long thread like cells 
    • create muscle fibers
  141. cardiac muscle tissue
    • involuntary; beats on its own
    • located in the walls of the heart
    • strided
    • auto rhythmic
    • cardiocytes connected to intercollected discs 
  142. function of a gland
    • they form boundaries between different environments and nearly all substances received or given off by the body 
    • must pass through some sort of epithelium
  143. secretion
    produces a product useful to the body
  144. excretion
    removal of waste
  145. endocrine glands
    • epithelial tissue, no ducts, secretions never reach an external surface
    • secretes into blood, secretes hormones
    • vascular
    • thyroid, pituitary gland, adrenal glands
  146. exocrine glands
    • secretions up to the surface; has ducts
    • enzymes
  147. eccrine gland
    • tear glands
    • open to skin to help control body temperature 
    • scalp and eyelids releasing oil
  148. holocrine gland
    accumulates a product then discinigrates  
  149. aporcrine cells
    • found in mammary glands
    • axilla and genitals
    • stimulated by stress releasing faremones 
    • open specifically to hair follicles
  150. different types of exocrine glands
    • simple coiled- single unbranched; sweat gland
    • compund acinar- mammary gland; sac and tubes are secreting
    • compound tubuloacinar- pancreas; goes through tube and sac; secretes mucus and serous glands
  151. integumentary system
    composed of the skin and appendages
  152. function of the skin
    • most important is physical barrier to the environment, allowing and limiting the inward and outward passage of water, electrolytes
    • provides protection against micro organisms, UV light, toxic agents 
  153. Thick skin
    contains five layers: startum basala, spinosum, granulosm. lucidum, and corneum
  154. thin skin
    contains only 4 layers of skin containing startum basala, spinosum, granulosum, and corneum
  155. 4 layers of skin from most superficial to deep
    • stratum corneum
    • stratum granulosum
    • stratum spinosum
    • stratum basel
  156. stem cells
    divide and differentiate into more functionally specific cell types (blood cells)
  157. keratinocytes
    formation of a barrier against enviornemental damage such as pathogens/bacteria
  158. melanocytes
    stimulate the production and release of melanin in hair and skin
  159. merkel cells
    a specialized cell at or near the epithelial–dermal junction and believed to act as a touch receptor by association with the flat, disklike ending of a nerve fiber
  160. what functions are within the cell?
    • blood vessels 
    • meissners corpuscle
    • pacinian corpuscle
    • nerve fibers
    • sebaceous glands
    • sweat glands
    • hair follicles
    • arrector pilli muscle
  161. hypodermis
    main sweat glands, hair follicles, and main blood vessels live
  162. what is the hypodermis composed of?
    subcutaneoud tissue
  163. what is the role of melanin?
    gives skin color
  164. how does melanin produce variation in skin color? what happens when UV exposure affect skin color?
    • melanin is the pigment primarily repsonsible for skin color
    • UV exposure causes skin cells in the epidermis to become more active
    • releasing melanin which shows sunburn or tan
  165. hemoglobin
    gives blood its color
  166. carotane
    weakest pigment in the skin; produce a yellowish tone
  167. basal cell carcinoma
    an epithelial tumor of the skin that seldom metastasizes but has the potential for local invasion and destruction; it usually occurs as one or several small pearly nodules with central depressions on the sun-exposed skin of older adults
  168. squamous cell carcinoma
    • an initially local carcinoma developed from squamous epithelium and characterized by cuboid cells and keratinization.
    • the form occurring in the skin, usually originating in sun-damaged areas or preexisting lesions.
    • a form of bronchogenic carcinoma, usually in middle-aged smokers, generally forming polypoid or sessile masses obstructing the bronchial airways.
  169. melanoma
    a tumor arising from the melanocytic system of the skin and other organs
  170. "A.B.C.D.E" cancer acronyms 
    • A- asymmetry
    • B- border
    • C- color
    • D- diameter
    • E- elevation

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