Structure Forms, Philosophy 11

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justjay18xx
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Structure Forms, Philosophy 11
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2013-07-24 01:16:21
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Structure forms Philosophy 11 exam
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Structure Forms, Philosophy 11
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  1. Affirming the antecedent
    • Argument where one premise is a conditional sentence, the other affirms the antecedent of the conditional - says, "Yes, the antecedent did occur" - and the conclusion is the consequent of the conditional
  2. Denying the consequent
    • An argument where one premise is a conditional sentence, the other denies the consequent - says, "No, the consequent did NOT occur" - and the conclusion is the denial, or negation, of the conditional's antecedent
  3. Deductive Fallacies
    Any argument form, represented as valid, where the truth of the premises does NOT guarantee the truth of the conclusion
  4. Affirming the consequent (Deductive fallacy)
    • An argument where one premise is a conditional sentence, the other confirms the consequent - says, "Yes, the consequent did occur" - and the conclusion is the conditional's antecedent
  5. Denying the antecedent (Deductive fallacy)
    • An argument where one premise is ┬áconditional sentence, the other denies the antecedent - says, "No, the antecedent did NOT occur" - and the conclusion is the denial, or negation, of the conditional's consequent
  6. Hypothetical Syllogism
    • Any syllogism (3 line argument w/ 2 premises & one Conclusion) where ALL of its sentences are conditional
  7. Constructive dilemmas
    • These have 2 conditional premises, a third premise that affirms one or the other of the antecedents, and a conclusion that states that one or the other of the consequents is therefore true
    • A variant of this is one where both conditional premises have the same consequent
  8. Destructive dilemmas
    • These have 2 conditional Premises, a third Premise that denies one or the other of the consequents, and a conclusion that states that one or the other of the antecedents is therefore False
  9. Disjunctive Syllogisms
    • A 3 line argument (2 premises & 1 conclusion) where one of the premises is a disjunction (an "or" sentence) & the other premise denies one of the disjuncts (1 of the alternatives stated in the "or" sentence); the Conclusion states that therefore the other disjunct is true
  10. "Faux" Disjunctive Syllogism
    • Beware of this INVALID for of argument. If a person wants coffee, that is no reason to think she won't want a doughnu
  11. Conjunction
    • An argument where the Conclusion is the conjunction of the premises - if 2 claims are true separately, then they are true when put together, or compounded using the word "and"
  12. Simplification
    • Argument where the premise is a conjunction - an "and" sentence - & where the Conclusion is one of the conjuncts - one of the things joined together using "and"; if 2 simple sentences are true when compounded - joining using the word "and" - then they are each true individually
  13. Logical addition
    • If a sentence is true, then a disjunction - an "or" sentence - made up of it & any other sentence, whether that other sentence is true or false, is always going to be a true sentence
  14. Sentential Logic
    • The branch of logic that has to do w/ the relationship between the sentences that make up an argument
  15. 5 kinds of Compound Sentences
    • Conjunctions: using word "and"; p and q
    • Disjunctions: using word "or"; p or q
    • Negations: using "it is not the case that", "not"; not-p
    • Biconditionals: using "if and only if"
    • Conditionals: using "if-then"; if p, then q
  16. Truth-functional connectives
    • When a compound sentence is formed from simple sentences using one or more of these connectives (conjunction, disjunction, negation, biconditional, conditional), then the TRUTH or FALSITY of the compound sentence depends entirely on the TRUTH or FALSITY of the simple sentences
    • **GO LOOK AT: Example for "Conjunction" Truth-functional connective
  17. Example for "Conjunction" Truth-functional connective
    • This is how things will ALWAYS go for "Conjunctions". They're TRUE when BOTH are True, but FALSE under ALL OTHER circumstances. If anything in a "Conjunction" is FALSE, then the whole sentence is FALSE

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