What are the five differences between reptiles and mammals?
What is the difference between mammalian and reptiles/non-mammalian reproduction?
Internal gestation vs egg laying
What kind of benefits does internal gestation provide to the fetus in comparison to egg laying?
In reproduction, what two types of selections are there?
K-selection and R-selection
The following are characteristics of what type of reproductive selection?
Low reproductive rate
High parental investment, slow development
Low mortality rates
Large body size
The following are charactertistics of what type of reproductive selection?
High reproductive rate
Little parental investment, fast development
High mortality rate
Small body size
Energy requirements are higher in K-selection or R-selection?
What is an example of a K-selection species?
What is an example of r-selection species?
Remains at a constant body tempature
Capable of vasoconstriction and vasodilation
Consume large quantities of food which turns into energy
Covered with hair/fur
Can live in many different types of environments
Give an example of Hetero-therms
Heterodontic and Homodontic refer to
Difference in species' diets
What are the 4 types of teeth found in humans/chimpanzees?
The _____ _____ indicates the number of each kind of teeth a mammal has.
Increased learning and flexible behavior are characteristics of
Mammals (Animals with internal gestation)
Name some characteristics of primates limbs/locomotion
ability to grasp
Tendency towards upper body erectness
Un-specialized post cranial skeleton
Retention of the clavicle
Name some characteristics of primates teeth/diet
Generalized dentition, simple cusp pattern
Little dietary specialization
Name some characteristics of primates senses/brain
Reduced sense of smell
Post orbital bar or closure
Stereoscopic vision, color vision
Name some characteristics of primates reproduction
Longer periods of gestation/infancy
Mostly have single births
Name some characteristics of primates ecology/behavior
Highly flexible learned behavior
Name the two types of evolution
What two ways can you group different species
What two look alike
What two are closely related
Cladistics does what?
Focuses on grouping by evolutionary relationships
Based on shared derived traits
Does NOT use shared primitive traits
What is a monophyletic group?
Shared by derived (homologous) traits
ex - humans and apes because they have no tail
What animals are Strepsirhines?
Lemurs, Lorises, Galagos
What animals are Haplorhine?
New world monkeys
Old world monkeys
What are some shared derived traits of Strepsirhines (Prosimians and Tarsiers) that differ from Haplorhines?
Ear Size - large
Number of Nipples - more
Body size - smaller
Type of mandible fusion -nonfused
Presence of grooming claw
What are some shared derived traits of Haplorhines and Tarsiers in comparison to Strepsirhines (Prosimians)?
Nose type - dry
Number of scent glands - less
Presence of postorbital closure
Presence of retinal fovea
absence of toothcomb
Amount of similar DNA
In the suborder Haplorhines, what are the two infraorders?
Within the infraorder Simiiformes, what are the two superfamilys
Platyrrhines and Catarrhines
Whats an example of a Platyrrhine
New world monkeys
Whats are the 3 types of Catarrhines
Old world monkeys
What are characteristics of Platyrrhines (new world mokeys)
Side facing nostrils
What are characteristics of Catarrhines? (Old world monkeys/apes)
Downward facing nostrils
Name: "the study of our closest living relatives, the primates, for the purpose of understanding aspects of our own behavior"
Name: "primate suborder that includes the Lemurs, Lorises, and Galigos (the prosimians)"
Name: "primate suborder that includes the Tarsiers, monkeys, apes and humans"
Name: "primate superfamily that includes all monkeys found in the Americas"
Name: "primate superfamily that includes all monkeys found in Africa and Asia"
Name: "all monkeys apes and humans"
Name: "member of the super family Hominoidea"
Name: "the division (called tribe) in the superfamily Hominoidea that includes humans and our recent ancestors"
Name: "the study of behavior from ecological and evolutionary perspectives"
Name: "the act of seeking and processing food"
Name: "set of behavioral patterns that has become prominent in a population as a result of natural selection"
Name: "behavioral favoring of one's close genetic relatives"
Name: "acting in a way that has a net loss of energy to the actor and a net benefit in energy to the receiver"
Name: "the spectrum of possible expression created by morphology, evolutionary history, and other aspects of genotype"
Name: "the actual expression of a trait or behavior"
Name: "by-products of structural change"
Name: "limits on current behavior or traits due to patterns and trends in an organism's evolutionary past"
Name: "period during which the infant is wholly reliant on others for nutrition, movement, thermoregulation and protection"
Infant dependency period
Name: "area used by a primate group or community"
Name: "bond enhancing or prosocial ("friendly")"
Name: "aggressive or combative ("unfriendly")"
Name: "set of relationships that results in different relative abilities to acquire desired resources"
Name: "staying in one's natal group"
Name: "behavioral and physiological sexual receptivity"
Name: "non reproductive sexual behavior that serves to resolve conflicts and/or reinforce alliances and coalitions"
Name: "methods of dating that provide us with assessments of a fossil's age relative to other fossils"
relative dating techniques
Name: "methods of dating that provide a specific age of a fossil based either on analysis of a piece of the fossil itself or analysis of the rocks surrounding the fossil"
chronometric dating techniques
Name: "ability to generate and regulate internal body temperature"
Name: "having different types of teeth"
Name: "internal production of a nutrient rich milk by the female to feed the young offspring"
Name: "retention of the fetus inside the body of the female through the course of its prenatal development"
Name: "ratio of brain to body size; an EQ of 1 indicates a brain size expected for that mammalian body size"
encephalization quotient (EQ)
Name: "a group of early mammals thought to be peripherally related to primates"
Name: "suborder of mammals made up of the extinct Pleseadapiformes and the living orders Primates, Scandentia (the tree shrews), Chiroptera (the bats), and Dermoptera (colugos)"
Name: "fossil primates; members of the infraorder Adapiformes, particularly related to both strepsirrhine and haplorrhine lineages"
Name: "fossil primates, members of the infraorder Omomyiformes, suborder Haplorrhini"
Name: "difference between the sexes of a species in body size or shape"
Name: "difference between the sexes of a species in the size of the canine teeth"
Name: "the ball and socket shoulder joint and the positioning of the scapula on the back allowing for 360 degree rotation of the arms"
Name: "the earliest family of hominoids (apes), dating to the Milocene"
When analyzing fossils, what part of the body is typically the only part left preserved?
Hardest tissue such as bones and teeth, but sometimes fossilized impressions of soft tissue are found as well.
Humans are mammals and primates (true/false)
Mammals are characterized by what 5 things?
A set of unique brain structures
______ are characterized by a postorbital bar, or bony enclosed eye socket: hands and feet capable of grasping: nails instead of claws on the ends of the digits; extensively overlapping visual fields; a large brain relative to body size; and long gestation and slow postnatal growth compared to maternal body size
The earliest primates are thought to be derived from a group related to the Pleseadapids sometime in the late _____ or early ______
Cretaceous or early Paleocene
What are the three main hypotheses for the evolution of primates from Archontan stock
-they center on arboreality
-fruit, flower, and insect predation
What are the three main primate fossils that show up in the Eocene Age?
the Simiform anthropoids
By the Miocene, a new set of primates, the hominoids, began to radiate out of _____. These primates exhibit a set of morphological characteristics that characterize the living ____.
The hominoids experienced a (increase/decrease) in diversity by the terminal Miocene, at the same time that the number and diversity of nonhomonoid anthropoid primates (monkeys) (increased/decreased)
decrease ; increased
The best representations of primate evolution are those that reveal ....?
general patterns and trends over time
The stud of ______ _____ can provide information from which we can attempt to reconstruct aspects of human evolution, especially the evolution of our behavior.
_____ may be defined as all the actions and inactions of an organism
Both _____ and _____ research methods enrich our study of behavior
Quantitative and qualitative
A behavior may be viewed from five different perspectives: name them.
phylogeny, ontogeny, proximate stimulus, the behavior itself and the function of the behavior
Behavior that is widespread in a taxonomic group is frequently considered to be an ______
Behavioral ecology is the study of behavior from _____ and _____ perspectives
ecological and evolutionary
Basic ecological stresses on an organism fall into what five general areas?
We measure the success of behavioral adaptation generally in terms of estimated energy costs and benefits in the sense of how these could potentially impact ____ _____ (reproductive success)
____ _____, the favoring of close genetic relatives, has ben proposed to explain apparent altruistic acts in organisms
Not all behavior is functional (true/false)
Genus Homo Species sapiens
Genus Homo Species sapiens
Stratigraphy and principle of superposition help to determine
The relative date of a fossil
Describe an index fossil
species that were widely distributed at their time but have a very short time period they existed in
ex- Microtine rodents in Eurasia
Bones absorb ____ but lose _____
Carbon 14 dating, important in archaeology, is only for _____ materials and things that are younger than _______ years old
Younger than 60,000 years old
Carbon 14 has a half life of _____ years before it decays
What kind of things can be dated using Carbon 14 method
Charcoal from campfires
Wood from ancient boats
What is dendrochronology?
The dating of wood by counting the growth rings on a tree
What is Potassium-argon dating?
Dating of volcanic ash/lava
-Widespread in East Africa
-Half life of 1.25 million years (good for dating old stuff)
-Measuring the levels of Potassium to Argon
What is Fission-track dating?
Used in Paleoantrhopology
Decay of volcanic material/glass
Half life of 4.5 billion years
What are the four types of dating methods?
Carbon 14 dating
"Laws of Burial"
What are two conditions that must be considered when doing Taphonomy
What are the best environments for fossils to form?
Process of fossilization is rare; there must be the right environments/conditions. Name 4 that are ideal.
-Non acidic soils
What is a mold?
a hollow space in the shape of what was once there
What is a cast?
When the hollow space of a mold is filled with some type of sediment and captures what was once there
-endocasts (inside of a skull)
Preservation potential of bones is based on (4)
- "volume" of bone
- Composition (cortical/trabecular)
-hydraulic behavior (how easy a bone is to be carried away by water ex - heavy skull vs light rib)
What can fossils tell us about species? (7)
Brain size and gross structure
Growth and development
Where are lemurs from?
Lemurs ____ are their primary weapon over territory
According to the movie, ______ is the reason we differ from emurs and other primates
how many species of lemurs are there in madagascar
What was the type of lemur in the movie that was more stand-offish than the rest
What are some benefits of social groups?
defense of food
collective rearing of offspring
What are the costs (negative) of social groups?
Erect Penis and Chest Beating are two signs of ______ agression
Biting, hiting, pinning, that can result in injury are few examples of _____ agression
Dominant relationships are over
What are the reasons for infanticide?
intersexual competition in male groups
What are some examples of mutualistic behavior?
in the kin selection theory... rb>c
r=coeffficent of relatedness
b=benefits to all
c=roots to the actor
r>0 for ____ to evolve
Mother infant bond is core on a _____ level
Give examples of clumped, evenly dispersed and randomly scattered availability of food
clumped - fruit
evenly dispersed - leaves
randomly scattered - insects
body size is a predictor of _____
chimpanzees are the exception to the rule because their diets also consist of