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2013-07-31 10:27:54

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  1. Vertebrates have...?
    • A backbone
    • Bilateral Symmetry
    • Basic skeletal pattern
  2. What are the five differences between reptiles and mammals?
    • Reproduction
    • Temperature Regulation
    • Diet
    • Skeletal Structure
    • Behavior
  3. What is the difference between mammalian and reptiles/non-mammalian reproduction?
    Internal gestation vs egg laying
  4. What kind of benefits does internal gestation provide to the fetus in comparison to egg laying?
    • Warmth
    • Protection
    • Better nutrition
  5. In reproduction, what two types of selections are there?
    K-selection and R-selection
  6. The following are characteristics of what type of reproductive selection?

    Stable environments
    Low reproductive rate
    High parental investment, slow development
    Low mortality rates
    Large body size
  7. The following are charactertistics of what type of reproductive selection?

    Unstable environments
    High reproductive rate
    Little parental investment, fast development
    High mortality rate
    Small body size
  8. Energy requirements are higher in K-selection or R-selection?
  9. What is an example of a K-selection species?
  10. What is an example of r-selection species?
  11. Describe Homeotherms
    • Remains at a constant body tempature
    • Capable of vasoconstriction and vasodilation
    • Consume large quantities of food which turns into energy
    • Covered with hair/fur
    • Can live in many different types of environments
  12. Give an example of Hetero-therms
  13. Heterodontic and Homodontic refer to
    Difference in species' diets
  14. What are the 4 types of teeth found in humans/chimpanzees?
    • Molars
    • Premolars
    • Canine
    • Incisors
  15. The _____ _____ indicates the number of each kind of teeth a mammal has.
    Dental Formula
  16. Increased learning and flexible behavior are characteristics of
    Mammals (Animals with internal gestation)
  17. Name some characteristics of primates limbs/locomotion
    • Flexible hands/feet
    • ability to grasp
    • 5 toes/fingers
    • Tendency towards upper body erectness
    • Un-specialized post cranial skeleton
    • Retention of the clavicle
  18. Name some characteristics of primates teeth/diet
    • Generalized dentition, simple cusp pattern
    • Little dietary specialization
  19. Name some characteristics of primates senses/brain
    • Reduced sense of smell
    • Post orbital bar or closure
    • Stereoscopic vision, color vision
    • Expanded Brain
  20. Name some characteristics of primates reproduction
    • Longer periods of gestation/infancy
    • Mostly have single births
  21. Name some characteristics of primates ecology/behavior
    • Forest living
    • Highly flexible learned behavior
    • Social males
  22. Name the two types of evolution
    • Convergent evolution
    • Parallel evolution
  23. What two ways can you group different species
    • What two look alike
    • What two are closely related
  24. Cladistics does what?
    • Focuses on grouping by evolutionary relationships
    • Based on shared derived traits

    Does NOT use shared primitive traits
  25. What is a monophyletic group?
    Shared by derived (homologous) traits

    ex - humans and apes because they have no tail
  26. What animals are Strepsirhines?
    Lemurs, Lorises, Galagos
  27. What animals are Haplorhine?
    • New world monkeys
    • Old world monkeys
    • Apes
    • Humans
  28. What are some shared derived traits of Strepsirhines (Prosimians and Tarsiers) that differ from Haplorhines?
    • Ear Size - large
    • Gestation legnth
    • Maturation legnth
    • Number of Nipples - more
    • Body size - smaller
    • Type of mandible fusion -nonfused
    • Presence of grooming claw
  29. What are some shared derived traits of Haplorhines and Tarsiers in comparison to Strepsirhines (Prosimians)?
    • Nose type - dry
    • Number of scent glands - less
    • Eye placement
    • Presence of postorbital closure
    • Presence of retinal fovea
    • placenta type
    • absence of toothcomb
    • Amount of similar DNA
  30. In the suborder Haplorhines, what are the two infraorders?
    Tarsiformes, Simiformes
  31. Within the infraorder Simiiformes, what are the two superfamilys
    Platyrrhines and Catarrhines
  32. Whats an example of a Platyrrhine
    New world monkeys
  33. Whats are the 3 types of Catarrhines
    • Old world monkeys
    • Apes
    • Humnans
  34. What are characteristics of Platyrrhines (new world mokeys)
    • Side facing nostrils
    • three premolars
  35. What are characteristics of Catarrhines? (Old world monkeys/apes)
    • Downward facing nostrils
    • two premolars
  36. Name: "the study of our closest living relatives, the primates, for the purpose of understanding aspects of our own behavior"
    comparative primatology
  37. Name: "primate suborder that includes the Lemurs, Lorises, and Galigos (the prosimians)"
  38. Name: "primate suborder that includes the Tarsiers, monkeys, apes and humans"
  39. Name: "primate superfamily that includes all monkeys found in the Americas"
  40. Name: "primate superfamily that includes all monkeys found in Africa and Asia"
  41. Name: "all monkeys apes and humans"
  42. Name: "member of the super family Hominoidea"
  43. Name: "the division (called tribe) in the superfamily Hominoidea that includes humans and our recent ancestors"
  44. Name: "the study of behavior from ecological and evolutionary perspectives"
    behavioral ecology
  45. Name: "the act of seeking and processing food"
  46. Name: "set of behavioral patterns that has become prominent in a population as a result of natural selection"
  47. Name: "behavioral favoring of one's close genetic relatives"
    kin selection
  48. Name: "acting in a way that has a net loss of energy to the actor and a net benefit in energy to the receiver"
  49. Name: "the spectrum of possible expression created by morphology, evolutionary history, and other aspects of genotype"
  50. Name: "the actual expression of a trait or behavior"
  51. Name: "by-products of structural change"
  52. Name: "limits on current behavior or traits due to patterns and trends in an organism's evolutionary past"
    phylogenetic constraints
  53. Name: "period during which the infant is wholly reliant on others for nutrition, movement, thermoregulation and protection"
    Infant dependency period
  54. Name: "area used by a primate group or community"
    home range
  55. Name: "bond enhancing or prosocial ("friendly")"
  56. Name: "aggressive or combative ("unfriendly")"
  57. Name: "set of relationships that results in different relative abilities to acquire desired resources"
  58. Name: "staying in one's natal group"
  59. Name: "behavioral and physiological sexual receptivity"
  60. Name: "non reproductive sexual behavior that serves to resolve conflicts and/or reinforce alliances and coalitions"
    sociosexual behavior
  61. Name: "methods of dating that provide us with assessments of a fossil's age relative to other fossils"
    relative dating techniques
  62. Name: "methods of dating that provide a specific age of a fossil based either on analysis of a piece of the fossil itself or analysis of the rocks surrounding the fossil"
    chronometric dating techniques
  63. Name: "ability to generate and regulate internal body temperature"
  64. Name: "having different types of teeth"
  65. Name: "internal production of a nutrient rich milk by the female to feed the young offspring"
  66. Name: "retention of the fetus inside the body of the female through the course of its prenatal development"
    internal gestation
  67. Name: "ratio of brain to body size; an EQ of 1 indicates a brain size expected for that mammalian body size"
    encephalization quotient (EQ)
  68. Name: "a group of early mammals thought to be peripherally related to primates"
  69. Name: "suborder of mammals made up of the extinct Pleseadapiformes and the living orders Primates, Scandentia (the tree shrews), Chiroptera (the bats), and Dermoptera (colugos)"
  70. Name: "fossil primates; members of the infraorder Adapiformes, particularly related to both strepsirrhine and haplorrhine lineages"
  71. Name: "fossil primates, members of the infraorder Omomyiformes, suborder Haplorrhini"
  72. Name: "difference between the sexes of a species in body size or shape"
    sexual dimorphism
  73. Name: "difference between the sexes of a species in the size of the canine teeth"
    canine dimorphism
  74. Name: "the ball and socket shoulder joint and the positioning of the scapula on the back allowing for 360 degree rotation of the arms"
    brachiator anatomy
  75. Name: "the earliest family of hominoids (apes), dating to the Milocene"
  76. When analyzing fossils, what part of the body is typically the only part left preserved?
    Hardest tissue such as bones and teeth, but sometimes fossilized impressions of soft tissue are found as well.
  77. Humans are mammals and primates (true/false)
  78. Mammals are characterized by what 5 things?
    • Homiothermy
    • Heterodotism,
    • Lactation
    • Internal Gestation
    • A set of unique brain structures
  79. ______ are characterized by a postorbital bar, or bony enclosed eye socket: hands and feet capable of grasping: nails instead of claws on the ends of the digits; extensively overlapping visual fields; a large brain relative to body size; and long gestation and slow postnatal growth compared to maternal body size
  80. The earliest primates are thought to be derived from a group related to the Pleseadapids sometime in the late _____ or early ______
    Cretaceous or early Paleocene
  81. What are the three main hypotheses for the evolution of primates from Archontan stock
    • -they center on arboreality
    • -visual adaptation
    • -fruit, flower, and insect predation
  82. What are the three main primate fossils that show up in the Eocene Age?
    • the Omomyoids,
    • the Adapoids
    • the Simiform anthropoids
  83. By the Miocene, a new set of primates, the hominoids, began to radiate out of _____. These primates exhibit a set of morphological characteristics that characterize the living ____.
    Africa; ape
  84. The hominoids experienced a (increase/decrease) in diversity by the terminal Miocene, at the same time that the number and diversity of nonhomonoid anthropoid primates (monkeys) (increased/decreased)
    decrease  ;  increased
  85. The best representations of primate evolution are those that reveal ....?
    general patterns and trends over time
  86. The stud of ______ _____ can provide information from which we can attempt to reconstruct aspects of human evolution, especially the evolution of our behavior.
    nonhuman primates
  87. _____ may be defined as all the actions and inactions of an organism
  88. Both _____ and _____ research methods enrich our study of behavior
    Quantitative and qualitative
  89. A behavior may be viewed from five different perspectives: name them.
    phylogeny, ontogeny, proximate stimulus, the behavior itself and the function of the behavior
  90. Behavior that is widespread in a taxonomic group is frequently considered to be an ______
  91. Behavioral ecology is the study of behavior from _____ and _____ perspectives
    ecological and evolutionary
  92. Basic ecological stresses on an organism fall into what five general areas?
    • nutritional
    • locomotion
    • predation
    • intraspecific competition
    • interspecific competition
  93. We measure the success of behavioral adaptation generally in terms of estimated energy costs and benefits in the sense of how these could potentially impact ____ _____ (reproductive success)
    lifetime fitness
  94. ____ _____, the favoring of close genetic relatives, has ben proposed to explain apparent altruistic acts in organisms
    Kin selection
  95. Not all behavior is functional (true/false)
  96. Kingdom             Animalia
    Phylum              Chordata
    Subphylum         Vertebrata
    Class                 Mammalia
    Order                  Primates
    Family                Hominidae
    Genus          Homo Species sapiens
  97. Kingdom
    • Kingdom             Animalia
    • Phylum              Chordata
    • Subphylum         Vertebrata
    • Class                 Mammalia
    • Order                  Primates
    • Family                Hominidae
    • Genus          Homo Species sapiens
  98. Stratigraphy and principle of superposition help to determine
    The relative date of a fossil
  99. Describe an index fossil
    species that were widely distributed at their time but have a very short time period they existed in

    ex- Microtine rodents in Eurasia
  100. Bones absorb ____ but lose _____
    • absorb fluorine;
    • lose nitrogen
  101. Carbon 14 dating, important in archaeology, is only for _____ materials and things that are younger than _______ years old
    • Carbon
    • Younger than 60,000 years old
  102. Carbon 14 has a half life of _____ years before it decays
    5,730 years
  103. What kind of things can be dated using Carbon 14 method
    • Charcoal from campfires
    • Bone
    • Wood from ancient boats
  104. What is dendrochronology?
    The dating of wood by counting the growth rings on a tree
  105. What is Potassium-argon dating?
    • Dating of volcanic ash/lava
    • -Widespread in East Africa
    • -Half life of 1.25 million years (good for dating old stuff)
    • -Measuring the levels of Potassium to Argon
  106. What is Fission-track dating?
    • Used in Paleoantrhopology
    • Decay of volcanic material/glass
    • Half life of 4.5 billion years
  107. What are the four types of dating methods?
    • Carbon 14 dating
    • Dendrochonrology
    • Potassium-Argon
    • Fission-track
  108. "Laws of Burial"
  109. What are two conditions that must be considered when doing Taphonomy
    • Geological conditions
    •  - sediments
    • Biological conditions
    • -predators, scavengers
  110. What are the best environments for fossils to form?
    • 1.Volcanic
    • 2.Lake (lacustrine)
    • 3.River (fluvial)
    • 4.Cave
  111. Process of fossilization is rare; there must be the right environments/conditions. Name 4 that are ideal.
    • -Hard tissues
    • -Quick burial
    • -Bacterial Decay
    • -Non acidic soils
  112. What is a mold?
    a hollow space in the shape of what was once there

  113. What is a cast?
    When the hollow space of a mold is filled with some type of sediment and captures what was once there

    -endocasts (inside of a skull)
  114. Preservation potential of bones is based on (4)
    • - "volume" of bone
    • - Composition (cortical/trabecular)
    • -Shape
    • -hydraulic behavior (how easy a bone is to be carried away by water ex - heavy skull vs light rib)
  115. What can fossils tell us about species? (7)
    • Senses
    • Brain size and gross structure
    • Dietary habits
    • Growth and development
    • Demography
    • Paleoecology
    • Social Behavior
  116. Where are lemurs from?
  117. Lemurs ____ are their primary weapon over territory
  118. According to the movie, ______ is the reason we differ from emurs and other primates
  119. how many species of lemurs are there in madagascar
  120. What was the type of lemur in the movie that was more stand-offish than the rest
  121. What are some benefits of social groups?
    • protection
    • defense of food
    • collective rearing of offspring
  122. What are the costs (negative) of social groups?
    • competition for
    • food
    • water
    • mates
  123. Erect Penis and Chest Beating are two signs of ______ agression
  124. Biting, hiting, pinning, that can result in injury are  few examples of _____ agression
  125. Dominant relationships are over
  126. What are the reasons for infanticide?
    intersexual competition in male groups
  127. What are some examples of mutualistic behavior?
    • cooperative grooming
    • warning calls
    • food sharing
  128. in the kin selection theory...  rb>c

    • r=coeffficent of relatedness
    • b=benefits to all
    • c=roots to the actor
  129. r>0 for ____ to evolve
  130. Mother infant bond is core on a _____ level
  131. Give examples of clumped, evenly dispersed and randomly scattered availability of food
    • clumped - fruit
    • evenly dispersed - leaves
    • randomly scattered - insects
  132. body size is a predictor of _____
  133. Strepsirrine eat
  134. haplorrines eat
    leaves, fruit
  135. chimpanzees are the exception to the rule because their diets also consist of
  136. _/_ of primates are extinct
  137. Name some threats to primates
    • destruction of habitat
    • tropical rainforest reduction
    • hunting
    • live capture
  138. h