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What is the first factor we should consider when planning our communication?
Analyze our audience
Who is the sending audience?
The person or organization we are communicating on behalf of. Such as commander, supervisor, or the Air Force.
What type of audience are the people or organization that you are speaking on behalf of?
The Sending audience
Who are the receiving audience?
The people who will be receiving the communication.
Who are the people who will be receiving the communication?
When analyzing our sending audience what are the four concerns we should think about?
- 1) Will my communication be in sync with organizational policy?
- 2) Am I communicating the intended message?
- 3) Who should coordinate on this?
- 4) Will the organization be embarrassed by this?
When analyzing the receiving audience what five concerns should i think about?
- 1) Who will be my audience? NCO's, Officers,...
- 2) Why should this concern them? Is it appropriate for the audience?
- 3) What does the audience know about the subject & why is it important? More they know the less explaining needed.
- 4) What's their background (career field, length of service)? Why is this important?
- 5) Will the audience be respective or hostile?
What step in preparing for communication comes after Analyzing our audience?
Choose a Topic
What four things do you benefit from by narrowing your topic?
- 1) Allow adequate coverage of the material.
- 2) Focus your attention on a specific area.
- 3) Require less research.
- 4) Provide a better chance for the audience to get your intended message.
What is the next step in preparing for communication after choosing a topic?
Determining the reason for our communication.
What four things can you benefit from by knowing the purpose of your communication?
- 1) Ensures your communication does what you intended.
- 2) Helps you organize your thoughts.
- 3) Focuses your communication.
- 4) Identifies what you want the receiving audience to do with your communication.
The purpose for communicating falls into 1 of 4 categories. What are the categories?
- 1) Inspire
- 2) Direct
- 3) Persuade
- 4) Inform
Whatever your purpose is its good to write it down in a _______________________.
An effective Purpose Statement lets the audience know __________________.
The reason for your communication & appeals to the audience.
An effective what lets the audience know the reason for your communication & appeals to the audience?
What are the three ways to appeal to your audience with a purpose statement?
- 1) Let them know what's in it for them.
- 2) Use empathy
- 3) Establish common ground
What are the first four steps of writing a letter?
- 1) Analyze your audience
- 2) Select a topic
- 3) Determine the purpose
- 4) Gather support
What are the four techniques of organizing?
- 1) Generating & refining content
- 2) Choosing a pattern of organization
- 3) Developing the introduction, body, & conclusion
- 4) Using transitions
For longer papers, what is an indispensable aid?
A detailed outline is an indispensable aid for what?
What forces you to align your main points & supporting ideas in a logical order before you write?
What is the purpose in outlining?
Arrange main & supporting ideas in a visible framework to see & test your logic on paper.
What comes after an outline?
What are the eight patterns to choose from when organizing communication?
- 1) Chronological
- 2) Spatial/Geographical
- 3) Cause/Effect
- 4) Problem/Solution
- 5) Sequential
- 6) Topical
- 7) Comparison
- 8) Reasoning/Logic
What type of pattern in organizing communication is in sequence of time in which they occur?
Which pattern in organizing communication starts at a point in space & proceeds in sequence to another point?
What is Spatial/Geographical?
Starts at a point in space & proceeds in sequence to another point.
What type of pattern in organizing communication shows how one or more ideas, actions, or conditions leads to other ideas, actions, or conditions?
Cause & Effect
What is Cause & Effect?
Shows how one or more ideas, actions, or conditions leads to other ideas, actions or conditions.
What is Problem/Solution?
Identifies & describes a problem & then discusses solutions.
What type of pattern in organizing communication identifies & describes a problem & then discuss solutions?
What is Sequential?
It describes a sequence of steps necessary to complete a procedure.
What type of pattern in organizing communication describes a sequence of steps necessary to complete a procedure?
What is Topical?
It is used to present general statements followed by numbered listings of subtopics to support, explain, or expand the statement.
What type of pattern in organizing communication is used to present general statements followed by numbered listings of subtopics to support, explain, or expand the statements?
What is Comparison/Contrast?
Is used when you need to discuss similarities or differences between topics, concepts, or ideas.
What type of pattern in organizing communication is used to discuss similarities or differences between topics, concepts, or ideas?
What is Reasoning/Logic?
To present research that will lead you down the path to your point of view.
What type of pattern in organizing communication is used to present research that will lead you down the path to your point of view?
What is usually developed after the body?
The introduction is usually developed after the ___________.
What three things must an introduction have?
- 1) Attention Step (Opening)
- 2) Purpose Statement
- 3) Overview
What must have these three things attention step, purpose statement, and overview?
What should the attention step do?
Focus the audience attention on the subject.
What focuses the audience attention on the subject?
What five things can you use to help with the attention step?
- 1) Rhetorical Question
- 2) Quotation
- 3) Joke
- 4) Startling Statement
- 5) Gimmick
What three things is a conclusion made of?
- 1) Summary
- 2) Re-motivation
- 3) Closure
What should a conclusion never do?
Bring up new points or support.
To ensure your conclusion is good what should you do?
Compare it to the introduction, they should flow together.
What signals to the audience that you are traveling to a new point?
What three things must a transition have?
- 1) Mention the point just discussed
- 2) Relate that point to the objective or purpose of the communication
- 3) Introduce the next main point
What are the four factors to consider when planning to communicate?
- 1) Analyze your audience
- 2) Choose your topic
- 3) Determine the the purpose
- 4) Gather support
What are the four techniques of organizing a communication?
- 1) Generating ideas
- 2) Choosing a pattern of organization
- 3) Developing introduction, body, & conclusion
- 4) Using transitions
How do you know when you have paragraph unity?
How do you check for unity?
All your sentences support the main point.
If all your sentences support the main point what is good?
What three things should your topic sentence do?
- 1) Summarize the paragraph
- 2) Introduce the main idea of the paragraph
- 3) Set the mood & catch their attention.
The topic sentence can be anywhere in the paragraph but in the military it is usually ____________.
The first sentence.
What should your sentences do after the topic sentence?
Support the topic sentence.
What are the two types of supporting sentences?
Major & Minor
What type of supporting sentence will define, explain, or add proof to the topic sentence (directly support the topic sentence)?
What supporting sentence define, explain, or add proof to the major sentences (supports the major support sentences)?
When you read a topic sentence it usually will do what?
Prompt a question.
What, when you read it, will normally prompt a question?
What three things should a closing sentence do?
- 1) Rephrase the topic sentence
- 2) Summarize the material in the paragraph
- 3) Transition to the next paragraph
What allows your readers to see relationships between sentences?
What does coherence do?
It allows your readers to see relationships between sentences.
What four ways can you achieve paragraph coherence?
- 1) Use pronouns
- 2) Repeat key words
- 3) Connect words & phrases
- 4) Maintain consistency in verbs, pronouns, & voice
What are great to help out with transitions and continuity?
What will help your reader move smoothly from sentence to sentence without losing the key ideas?
Repeat key words
What can help show the relationship of one sentence to another?
Words like first, next, also, & therefore
What type of words can be used to connect thoughts?
Words that show addition (and, then, also, besides, furthermore, likewise, additionally, moreover, first, next, both, .....)
What type of words can be used to introduce or connect ideas that in someway conflicts or contrast with the info that precedes them?
Words that show contrast (but, still, however, yet, never less,.....)
To introduce or connect an alternative possibility, you may want to use words that indicate ___________.
Choice (either, neither, or, nor, otherwise,.....)
What type of words can connect a result or consequence to the preceding statement?
Words that reflect a result (accordingly, hence, therefore, consequently,.....)
What is a way to ensure paragraph coherence?
Maintain a consistent point of view.
What is writing in the first person?
Represents the person who is writing (I, me, we,...)
What is writing in the second person?
Represents the person written to (you.....)
What is writing in the third person?
Represents the person or thing written about (him, her, them, it, he, she, they,....)
What type of word changes to show the time of their actions, or the time of the ideas they express?
What is the property of a verb that shows whether the subject acts or is acted upon?
What type of voice is the subject acted upon? Example, "The dog was seen by John."
What type of voice represents that the subject acts? Example "John saw the dog."
If a verb ends in "s" it is _________.
If a verb does not end in "s" it is __________.
What is the word or phrase to which the pronoun refers?
What is an Antecedent?
The word or phrase to which the pronoun refers
What is used to prevent confusion or misunderstanding in our message?
What is clarification support?
It is to prevent confusion or misunderstanding in our message.
What adds credibility, shows something is true, & ca proof or support a point?
What is proof support?
It adds credibility, shows something is true, and proves or supports a point.
What are the five types of support?
- 1) Definitions
- 2) Examples
- 3) Comparisons
- 4) Testimony
- 5) Statistics
What are the two types of support categories?
- 1) Clarification
- 2) Proof Support
Definition is primarily used as a ____________ support.
What type of proof support is most frequently used to clarify relationships but can be used to prove a point?
What is a figure of speech used to compare two things.
What is the most used comparison in the military?
What is info taken from experts?
What type of testimony is word for word without omissions?
The testimony direct quotation is what?
Word for word with no omissions
What type of testimony is to quote only part of what someone says?
Quotation with omissions
What type of testimony is borrowing info from someone else & putting it in your own words? This is great to summarize a long quote.
The testimony paraphrase means to do what?
Borrow info from someone else & put it into your own words.
What is the most powerful form of proof support and also the most misused?
What are the three methods of statistics?
- 1) Ratios
- 2) Percentages
- 3) Raw number
What type of statistic is a numerical comparison of two or more things, 17 enlisted to 1 officer?
What is a ratio statisitc?
Numerical comparison of two or more things. 17 enlisted to 1 officer
What type of statistic is a figure that reflects a portion of something when compared to the whole? Out of 360 students 5% are officer.
What is a percentage statistic?
A figure that reflects a portion of something when compared to the whole. Out of 360 students 5% are officers.
What type of statistic is numbers that haven't been cooked yet? 360 enlisted to 20 officers
What is a raw number statistic?
Numbers that haven't been cooked yet. 360 enlisted to 20 officers
What are the five rules of statistics?
- 1) Round off to the nearest number
- 2) Use sparingly
- 3) Dramatize
- 4) Recency (don't be outdated)
- 5) Context
What are the two errors in thinking patterns?
What is the error in thinking patterns that is a process of drawing a conclusion or inferences from evidence?
Describe the error in thinking pattern, reasoning.
A process of drawing a conclusion or inferences from evidence.
What is the error in thinking patterns that is a statement or argument based on false or invalid conclussion?
What is, the error in thinking patterns, fallacy?
A statement or argument based on false or invalid conclussion.
What are the three readings that you should do when editing, in order?
- 1) Arrangement & Flow
- 2) Paragraph Structure & Clarity
- 3) Sentences, phrases, & words
When doing the first read through, arrangement & flow, what should you be checking for?
Tasking, purpose, page count, page length, relevance, & completeness. Also compare the introduction & conclusion.
What are the two things you are checking for when checking unity of focus?
- 1) Is there one & only one main point Of the paragraph?
- 2) Can you identify the central idea of each paragraph?
On the third and final reading what are you checking for?
Concentrate on the small stuff. Spelling, passive voice, grammatical errors......
Feedback should be _______ rather than general.
Feedback should be directed at _____________________________.
Behavior the receiver can control.
_____________ wants people to do it their way only.
What are the three reasons effective eye contact is important?
- 1) It lets the listener know you are interested in them.
- 2) It allows you to receive nonverbal feedback from your audience.
- 3) It enhances your credibility.
To achieve genuine eye contact you must have an __________________.
Earnest desire to communicate with your listeners.
What are the two words that can describe effective eye contact?
Direct & Impartial
What are the four benefits to effective body movement?
- 1) Catches the eye of the listener & helps hold their attention.
- 2) Convenient way of punctuating your message.
- 3) Helps to relieve nervousness in the speaker
- 4) Can place the audience more at ease.
What are the three properties of voice?
- 1) Quality
- 2) Intelligibility
- 3) Variety
What type of voice refers to the overall impression a voice make on others?
When speaking what is affected by laziness of the tongue & lips or not opening the mouth enough?
When speaking what is affected by misplaced accent, omit sound, or add sounds?
What is the spice of speaking?
What stems from all forms of vocal variety?