Ortho and Athletic Injuries - Unit One

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Ortho and Athletic Injuries - Unit One
2010-06-13 22:29:39
Ortho athletic injuries

This covers chapters 1,2,4,5
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  1. What is biomechanics?
    The functions of the human body.
  2. What is pathomechanics?
    Producing and abnormal movement when injured.
  3. What is pathology?
    Producing abnormal physiology when ill.
  4. What is triage?
    The process of determining the priotiy of treatment.
  5. What is systematic?
    Orderly; based on a specific sequence of events.
  6. What is objective data?
    Finite measures that are readily reproducible reardless of the individual collecting the information.
  7. What is baseline measurements?
    The inital physcial findings, either from the pre-season physical examiniation in the athlete or upon the inital evaluation during an injury or illness.
  8. Testing the uninjured side of the body my actually increase the patient's apprehensiona and cause what?
    Muscle guarding
  9. What is the role of the uninjured side of the body to the examiner?
    History - The patient can use uninjured side for referencing pain, lack of motion, or the mechanism of injury.

    Inspection - Provides a reference for symmetry and color of the supericial tissues.

    Palpation - Provides a reference for the comparison of bilateral symmetry of bones, alighnment, tissue temp, or other deformity as well as the presence of increased tendernes.

    ROM Testing - Provides a reference for ROM, strength, and painfu arcs.

    Ligamentous and capsular test - Provides a refernce for end-feel, relative laxity, and pain.

    Special Tests - Provides a refernce for pathology of individual ligaments, and joint capsules, and musculotendinous units and the body's organs.

    • Neurologic Tests - Provides a reference for bilateral sensory, reflex, and motor function.
  10. What is the mechanism of injury?
    How the injury occured.
  11. What is macrotrauma?
    Trauma caused by on single event.
  12. What is micro trauma?
    Trauma caused by the accumulaiton of repeated forces resulting in an insidious onset of symptoms.
  13. What is considered instabilty?
    Giving way or subluxation of a joint during functional activity that causes pain and inability to complete the activity.
  14. What is subluxation?
    The partial or incomplete dislocation of a joint, usually transient in nature; the joit surfaces relocate as the forces causing the joint desplacements are relieved.
  15. What is referred pain?
    Pain at a site other than the actual locaton of the trauma. Referred pain tends to be projected outward from the torso and distally along the extremities.
  16. What is diffused pain?
    Scattered or widespread pain.
  17. What is overuse syndrome?
    Injury caused by accumulated microtraumatic stress placed on a structure or body area.
  18. What is paresthesia?
    The sensation of numbness or tingling, often described as a "pins and needles" sensation, caused by compression of or a lesion to a peripheral nerve.
  19. What is congenital?
    A condition existing at or before birth.
  20. What is a sprain?
    The stetching or tearing of legamentous or capsular tissue.
  21. What is gait?
    The sequential movement sof the spine, pelvis, knee, ankle, foot, and uper extremity when walking ro running.
  22. What is gross deformity?
    An abnormality that is visible t the unaided eye.
  23. After establishing a facture or dislocation, what should the examiner do next?
    The presence of any other significant trauma must be ruled out. The evaluation is terminated, emergency management procedures are implemented and the person is transported to a medical facility.
  24. What is sensation?
    The ability of the athlete to perceive sensory stimuli such as touch discrimination or tempreture.
  25. What is ecchymosis?
    A blue or purple area of skin caused by the movement of blood into the skin.
  26. What is a keloid?
    Hypertrophic scar formation secondary to excessive collagen.
  27. What is contralateral?
    Pertaining to the opposite side of the body or the opposite extremity.
  28. What is crepitus?
    Repeated crackling sensations or sound emanating from a joint or tissue.
  29. What is the bursa?
    A fluid-filled sac that decreases friction between adjoining soft tissues or between soft tissue and bones.
  30. Why should you check for a change in tissue density?
    Because changes in density could indicate muscle spasm, hemorrhage, edema, scarring, myositis ossificans, or other conditions.
  31. What might an increase in tissue tempreture indicate?
    An active inflammatory process.
  32. What is normative data?
    Normal ranges of data collected for comparison during the evaluation of an athlete. On many measures, athletes have norms different from the general population.
  33. What does proimal refer to?
    Toward the midline of the body; the opposite of distal.
  34. What does flexion mean?
    The act of bending a joint and decreasing its angle.
  35. What does ROM mean?
    Range of motion.
  36. What doesn AROM mean?
    Active range of motion.
  37. What are soft tissues?
    Structures other than bone, including muscle, tendon, legament, capsule, bursa, and skin.
  38. What is malingering?
    Faking or exaggerating the symptoms of an injury or illness.
  39. What is a painful arc?
    An area withing a joint's range of motion that causes pain, representing compression, impingement, or abrasion of the underlying tissues.
  40. What is end-feel?
    The specfic quality fo the movement felt by an examiner moving a joint to the end of its range of motion.
  41. What does extension mean?
    The act of straightening a joint and increasing its angle.
  42. What does contraindication mean?
    Procedure that may prove harmful given the athlete's current condition.
  43. What does PROM mean?
    Passive range of motion.
  44. What is contractile tissue?
    Tissue that is capable of shrtening and subsequently elongating; muscular tissue.
  45. What does RROM mean?
    Resisted range of motion
  46. What is fossa?
    A depression on a bone.
  47. What does abduction mean?
    Lateral movement of a body part away from the midline of the body. In the feet, the movement is in reference to the midline of the foot.
  48. What is compensation?
    Compensation occurs when postural changes are used to substitute for a loss of motion or weakness, such as using shoulder girdle elecation to compensate for a loss of glenohumeral abduction. Compensation may also occure through muscular substitution, especially by more proximal muscle groups, as the patient attempts to overcome wekness of the muscle being tested by recruiting other muscles.
  49. What are noncontractile tissues?
    Ligamentous and capsular tissues surrounding a joing.
  50. What is a upper lower quarter screen?
    Assessments of the neurologic status of the peripheral nervous system of the upper and lower extremities, through the evaluation of sensation, motor function, and deep tendon reflexes respectively.
  51. What is dermatome?
    An area of skin innervated by a single nerve root.
  52. What are motor neurons?
    Neurons that send signals from the central nervous system to the muscluar system.
  53. What is a musulotendinous unit?
    The group fromed by a muscle and its tendons.
  54. What is an eccentric muscle contraction?
    A contaction in which the elongation of the muscle is voluntarily controlled. Lowering a weight is an example of an eccentric contraction.
  55. What is dynamic overload?
    Occurs when the muscle generates more force than its fibers can withstand.
  56. What does antagonistic mean?
    In the opposite direction of the movement.
  57. What is the facia?
    A fibrous membrane that supports and separates and muscles and unites the skin with the underlying tissues.
  58. What does etiology mean?
    The cause of a disease.
  59. What are osteoblasts?
    Cells concerned with the formation of new bone.
  60. What are chondroblasts?
    A cell that forms cartilage.