Psychology Final Exam

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Psychology Final Exam
2013-07-24 20:09:47
Psychology 101

Introduction to the Science of Psychology, Learning, Human Development, Personality, Psychological Disorders, Treatment of Psychological Disorders, Social Psychology
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  1. The five questions in the critical thinking approach
    • What am I being asked to believe or accept?
    • is the evidence available to support the claim?
    • Can the evidence be interpreted another way?
    • What evidence would help evaluate the alternatives?
    • What conclusions are most reasonable?
  2. Classical Conditioning
    • a procedure in which a neutral stimulus is paired with a stimulus that triggers a reflexive response until the neutral stimulus alone comes to trigger a similar response
    • subconscious changes
    • what's before the stimuli matters most
  3. Operant Conditioning
    • a process in which responses are learned on the basis of their rewarding or punishing consequences
    • conscious thought changes
    • what's after the stimuli matters most
  4. Erik Erikson's Psychosocial Stages: Stages, Ages, and Crises
    • First Year: Trust vs. Mistrust
    • Second Year: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
    • Third-Fifth Year: Initiative vs. Guilt
    • Sixth Year-Puberty: Industry vs. Inferiority
    • Adolescence: Identity vs. Role Confusion
    • Early Adulthood: Intimacy vs. Isolation
    • Middle Age: Generativity vs. Stagnation
    • Old Age: Ego Integrity vs. Despair
  5. Freud's Id
    a personality component containing basic instincts, desires, and impulses with which all people are born
  6. Freud's Ego
    the part of the personality that makes compromises and mediates conflicts between and among the demands of the id, the superego, and the real word
  7. Freud's Superego
    the component of personality that tells people what they should and should not do
  8. Freud's Repression
    unconsciously pushing threatening memories, urges, or ideas from conscious awareness
  9. Freud's Rationalization
    attempting to make actions or mistakes seem reasonable
  10. Freud's Projection
    unconsciously attributing one's own unacceptable thoughts or impulses to another person
  11. Freud's Reaction Formation
    defending against unacceptable impulses by acting opposite them
  12. Freud's Sublimation
    converting unacceptable impulses into socially acceptable actions and perhaps symbolically expressing
  13. Freud's Displacement
    deflecting an impulse from its original target to a less threatening one
  14. Freud's Denial
    simply discounting the existence of threatening impulses
  15. Freud's Compensation
    striving to make up for unconscious impulses or fears
  16. 5 Factor Personality Model: Openness
    artistic, curious, imaginative, insightful, original, wide interests, unusual thought processes, intellectual interests
  17. 5 Factor Personality Model: Conscientiousness
    efficient, organized, planful, reliable, thorough, dependable, ethical, productive
  18. 5 Factor Personality Model: Extraversion
    active, assertive, energetic, outgoing, talkative, gesturally expressive, gregarious
  19. 5 Factor Personality Model: Agreeableness
    appreciative, forgiving, generous, kind, trusting, noncritical, warm, compassionate, considerate, straightforward
  20. 5 Factor Personality Model: Neuroticism
    anxious, self-pitying, tense, emotionally unstable, impulsive, vulnerable, touchy, prone to worry
  21. Affective Disorder (Mood Disorder)
    a condition in which a person experiences extremes of moods for long periods, shifts from one extreme mood to another, and experiences moods that are inconsistent with events
  22. Agoraphobia
    a strong fear of being alone or away from the safety of home
  23. Antisocial Personality Disorder
    a long-term, persistent pattern of impulsive, selfish, unscrupulous, even criminal behavior
  24. Anxiety Disorder
    a condition in which intense feelings of fear and dread are long-standing or disruptive
  25. Bipolar Disorder
    a condition in which a person alternates between the two emotional extremes of depression and mania
  26. Body Dysmorphic Disorder
    a somatoform disorder characterized by intense distress over imagined abnormalities of the skin, hair, face or other areas of the body
  27. Conversion Disorder
    a somatoform disorder in which a person appears to be (but actually is not) blind, deaf, paralyzed, or insensitive to pain
  28. Dissociative Amnesia
    a psychological disorder marked by a sudden loss of memory for one's own name, occupation, or other identifying information
  29. Dissociative Disorders
    conditions involving sudden and usually temporary disruptions in a person's memory, consciousness, or identity
  30. Dissociative Identity Disorder
    a dissociative disorder in which a person appears to have more that one identity, each of which behaves in a different way
  31. Dysthymic Disorder
    a pattern of depression in which the person shows the sad mood, lack of interest, and loss of pleasure associated with major depression but to a lesser degree and for a longer period
  32. Generalized Anxiety Disorder
    a condition that involves long-lasting anxiety that is not focused on any particular object or situation
  33. Hypochondriasis
    a strong, unjustified fear of physical illness
  34. Major Depression (Major Depressive Disorder)
    a condition in which a person feels sad and hopeless for weeks or months, often losing interest in all activities and taking pleasure in nothing
  35. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
    an anxiety disorder in which a person becomes obsessed with certain thoughts or feels a compulsion to do certain things
  36. Panic Disorder
    anxiety in the form of severe panic attacks that come without warning or obvious cause
  37. Personality Disorders
    long-standing, inflexible ways of behaving that become styles of life that create problems, usually for others
  38. Phobias
    an anxiety disorder that involves strong, irrational fear of an object or situation that does not objectively justify such a reaction
  39. Schizophrenia
    a pattern of severely disturbed thinking, emotion, perception, and behavior that constitutes one of the most serious and disabling of all mental disorders
  40. Social Phobias
    strong irrational fears related to social situations
  41. Somatization Disorder
    a psychological problem in which a person has numerous physical complaints without verifiable physical illness
  42. Somatoform Disorder
    psychological problems in which a person shows the symptoms of some physical disorder for which there is no physical cause
  43. Somatoform Pain Disorder
    a somatoform disorder marked by complaints of severe, often constant pain with no physical cause
  44. Specific Phobias
    phobias that involve fear and avoidance of specific stimuli and situations such as heights, blood, and specific animals
  45. Substance-Related Disorders
    problems involving the use of psychoactive drugs for months or years in ways that harm the user or others
  46. Antidepressant Drugs and Mood Elevators
    drugs that reduce depression, can have weight gain side-effects
  47. Behavioral Family Therapy
    • behavioral therapy where the family is there for support
    • good for: schizophrenia
  48. Cognitive Behavior Therapy
    • behavioral treatment methods that help clients change the way they think as well as the way they behave
    • good for: major depression, agoraphobia, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder
  49. Cognitive Therapy
    • an organized problem-solving approach in which the therapist actively collaborates with clients to help them notice how certain negative thoughts precede anxiety and depression
    • good for: OCD, PTSD, schizophrenia (for delusions), substance disorders
  50. Electroshock Therapy/Electroconvulsive Shock Therapy
    • a brief electric shock administered to the brain, usually to reduce severe depression that does not respond to drug treatments
    • good for: LAST RESORT ONLY
  51. Exposure Therapy
    • therapy where the patient is shown or exposed to the object of their fear or disorder
    • good for: specific phobias, agoraphobia, panic disorder, OCD
  52. Flooding
    • an exposure technique for reducing anxiety that keeps a client in a feared but harmless situation
    • good for: specific cases where exposure therapy would be used
  53. Lithium and Anticonvulsants
    calm mania and reduce mood swings of bipolar disorder
  54. Neuroleptic Drugs (Antipsychotics)
    drugs that relieve the symptoms of schizophrenia or other severe forms of psychological disorder
  55. Punishment
    • the presentation of an aversive stimulus or the removal of a pleasant one following some behavior
    • good for: very few things
  56. Tranquilizing Drugs (Anxiolytics)
    drugs that reduce tension and symptoms of anxiety
  57. Factors Affecting Obedience
    • Experimenter Status and Prestige
    • The Behavior of other People
    • The Behavior of the Learner (Milgram Experiment)
    • Personality Characteristics