Aeromedical Factors

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walterm
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228078
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Aeromedical Factors
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2014-02-21 07:49:33
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Aeromedical Factors
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  1. Types of Stressors

    P
    - , , , ,
    E
    -
    -
    -
    P
    - , , ,
    C
    -
    -
    -
    • Physiological
    • -DEATH
    • Environmental
    • -Altitude
    • -Speed
    • -Acft Design/Characteristics (Fixed vs Rotary)
    • -IMC & Night vs VMC
    • Psychosocial
    • -Job, Family, Illness

    • Cognitive
    • -Musts and Shoulds
    • -Responsibility of Choice
    • -Failure to focus on here and now
  2. Physiological Stressors
    L e t c t a o c i o's l, c, a/o i w o.

    D:
    -A f s o m.  D n S M.
    -O - t m t p d n r r t a c b d.
    -A R, e.g. P.
    -B a o P S E.
    -S; u e f c o s s w o c d.
    -C d d/f, c e b p, i h-e c/t, c n/i.
    E:
    -N a s/r f o f p.
    A:
    -E O i p a b 2,0 f. W 1 h b f d.
    T:
    -C m i h a t a t O.  I p a t 5 f.
    H:
    -F b s b's e d.
    Life events that can trigger adaptation or change in one's lifestyle, career, and/or interaction with others.

    • Drugs:
    • -Apprise flight surgeon of medications.  Do not Self Medicate.
    • -Overdose - taking more than prescribed does not reduce recovery time and can be dangerous.
    • -May experience Allergic Reactions, e.g. Penicillin.
    • -Be aware of Predictable Side Effects.
    • -Synergistic; undesired effects from combinations or stressful situations while on certain drugs.
    • -Caffeine delays drowsiness/fatigue, can elevate blood pressure, impair hand-eye coord/timing, cause nervousness/irritability.
    • Exhaustion: 
    • -Need adequate sleep/rest for optimal flight performance.
    • Alcohol: 
    • -Ea Oz increases physiological altitude by 2,000 ft. Wait 12 hours before flying duties.
    • Tobacco: 
    • -Carbon monoxide impairs hemoglobin ability to attach to O2.  Increases physiological altitude to 5k ft.
    • Hypoglycemia:
    • -Falling blood sugar body's efficiency decreases.
  3. Hypoxia
    Definition
    Condition that results from an insufficient amount of O2 in the body tissues.
  4. Hypoxia
    Definition

    4 Types
    H - R i O c c o t b.
    A a b l a m c t.
    C f s a e a p d t a m.
    S - R i s b f o r b f.
    H - I w t u o O b t b t. A, n, c p; n, h s, a c i w c.
    H - I O i t a t i b o w c p t d o O f t l t t b s.
    • Definition
    • Condition that results from an insufficient amount of O2 in the body tissues.

    • Hypemic - Reduction in O2 carrying capacity of the blood.
    • Anemia and blood loss are most common types.
    • CO from smoking and exhaust and potentially dangerous to aircrew members.
    • Stagnant - Reduction in systematic blood flow or regional blood flow.
    • Histotoxic - Interference with the use of O2 by the body tissues. Alcohol, narcotics, certain poisons; nicotine, hydrogen sulfied, and cyanide interfere with cells.
    • Hypoxic - Insufficient O2 in the air that is breathed or when conditions prevent the diffusion of O2 from the lungs to the blood stream.
  5. Hypoxia
    4 Stages
    I - D N V
    C - D; p j; i c a e.
    D - I f c; h; s; v; i f, a j; d c; m; p s.
    C - C & c n s f; c; c c; d.
    • Indifferent - SL - 10,000 ft. 98% to 90%
    • Decreased Night Vision
    • Compensatory - 10,000 - 15,000 ft. 89% to 80%
    • Drowsiness; poor judgement; impaired coordination and efficiency.
    • Disturbance - 15,000 - 20,000 ft. 79% to 70%
    • Impaired flight control; handwriting; speech; vision; intellectual function, and judgement; decreased coordination; memory; pain sensation.
    • Critical - 20,000+ ft, < 69%
    • Circulatory & central nervous system failure; convulsions; cardiovascular collapse; death.
  6. Hypoxia
    Prevention
    L t a a
    U s O
    U p c
    M s-i s.
    Treatments
    xx% O
    D t a s a (b xx f m)
    • Prevention
    • Limit time at altitude
    • Use supplemental O2
    • Use pressurized cabin
    • Minimize self-imposed stress.
    • Treatment
    • 100% O2
    • Descent to a safe altitude (below 10,000 ft minimum)
  7. 40-8
    Flight Surgeon Notifications
    M o d p r m, a o s.
    E o U C v.
    T b m h p.
    T f A m p.
    C o o t.
    • Med or dental procedure requiring medication, anesthesia or sedation.
    • ER or Urgent Care visits.
    • Treatment by mental health professionals.
    • Treatment from Alternative medicine practices.
    • Chiropractic or osteopathic treatment.
  8. Hour Restrictions
    • 6 Hr: Centrifuge runs.
    • 12 Hr:
    • Alcohol.
    • Simulator Sickness.
    • Immunizations.
    • Anesthesia, local or regional, to include dental.
    • 24 Hr:
    • Plasma donation
    • Hypobaric chamber runs in excess of 25,000 feet.
    • Hyperbaric chamber/SCUBA diving.
    • 48 Hr: Anesthesia; General, Epidural to include spinal.
    • 72 Hr: Blood donation (>199cc)
    • Allows for blood draw during flight phys and still able to fly
  9. Spatial Disorientation
    Types:

    Prevention:
    N f V & I; N f w v r p;
    A F & H (H, A, S, H)
    T I

    Treatment:
    D I A; R o & U i; T C
    • Type I (Unrecognized)
    • Type II (Recognized)
    • Type III (Incapacitating)

    • Prevention:
    • Never fly VMC & IMC; Never fly without visual reference points;
    • Avoid Fatigue & Hash (Hypoxia, Anxiety, Smoking, Hypoglycemia)
    • Trust Instruments

    • Treatment:
    • Delay Intuitive Actions; Rely on & Use instruments; Transfer Controls
  10. Vestibular illusions

    Sg (S C):
    L (M c) - F s a l, b a i s s b.  U l, p l i d o b.
    G S - P e s a c r e, w t s i a f, p f s i o d a w w t a.
    C I (M d) - P t w r h m c p, r, y m i c r i o h o h s.

    Sg (O o)
    O - D r a/d, p s n u o d.  D p w o c i e n l/h a.
    E I - U a; E t d a t f, p s n u a m p a i n l a.
    O - D a; e w t u a t f, p s n l a m p a n u.
    • Somatogyral Illusions (Semicircular Canals):
    • Leans (Most common) - Feel straight and level, but attitude indicator shows slight bank.  Upon leveling, pilot learns in direction of banks.
    • Graveyard Spin - Pilot enters spin and canals reach equilibrium, when the spin is adjusted for, pilot feels spin in opposite direction and will want to adjust.
    • Coriolis Illusion (Most dangerous) - Prolong turn with rapid head motion cause pitch, roll, yaw movement in canals resulting in overwhelming head over heels sensation.

    • Somatogravic Illusions (Otolith organ)
    • Oculogravic - During rapid accel/decel, pilot senses nose up or down.  Disoriented pilot will over control into extreme nose low/high attitude.
    • Elevator Illusion - Upward acceleration; Eyes tract down attempting to fixate, pilot senses nose up and may push acft into nose low attitude.
    • Oculoagravic - Downward acceleration; eyes will tract up attempting to fixate, pilot senses nose low and may pull acft nose up.
  11. Fatigue
    Definition & Types

    A: 2 R s p, o r p t r.  I; i; d; l o a/c; l o a o e.
    C: S a p.  S w o r t r.  I; i; d; p j, p, m; l a/w.
    M E/B:  C f u t l, b s d a c f o/s.
    A state of feeling tired, weary, sleepy that results from prolonged mental or physical work, extended periods of anxiety, exposure to harsh environments, or loss of sleep.  Boring and monotonous tasks can increase fatigue.

    • Acute: 2 Regular sleeping periods, one regular period to recover.
    • Irritability; inattention; distracted; loss of accuracy/control; lack of awareness of errors.
    • Chronic: Several acute periods.  Several weeks of rest to recover.
    • Irritability; insomnia; depression; poor judgement, performance, motivation; loss appetite/weight.
    • Motivational Exhaustion/Burnout:  Chronic fatigue untreated too long, body shuts down and ceases function occupationally/socially.
  12. G P
    -L P
    -A F
    -V P
    • Geometric Perspective
    • -Linear Perspective
    • -Apparent foreshortening
    • -Vertical Position in the field
  13. R I S
    -K S o O
    -I o D S o O
    -T A
    -O C
    • Retinal Image Size
    • -Known Size of Objects
    • -Increasing or Decreasing Size of Objects
    • -Terrestrial Association
    • -Overlapping Contours
  14. A P
    -F o C a S
    -L o T a D
    -P o L S
    • Aerial Perspective
    • -Fading of Colors and Shades
    • -Loss of Texture and Detail
    • -Position of Light Source
  15. Visual Cues
    Fire Fire Fire
    C R A S H
    C S A R
    • Fascination/Fixation in flying
    • False Horizon Illusion
    • Flicker Vertigo
    • Crater Illusion
    • Relative Motion Illusion
    • Altered Planes of Reference
    • Size-distance Illusion
    • Height-depth Perception Illusion
    • Confusion with Ground Lights (Celestial Lights)
    • Structural Illusion
    • Autokinesis
    • Reversible Perspective
  16. B A a S
    I
    R o O
    D
    I D
    • Body Area and Site
    • Intensity
    • Rate of Onset
    • Duration
    • Impact Direction

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