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The building block of proteins are
Simple proteins yield what products when broken down?
amino acids or products of amino acids
conjugated proteins yield what products when broken down?
amino acids and non-protein compounds
hemoglobin, myoglobin and immunoglobins are examples of
The globin (protein) of hemoglobin is complex to a
non protein heme
immunoglobulin is complexed to
made in an inactive state and become activated as a result of some chemical triggering device. TYpically have the prefix pro- or the suffix -ogen
An amino acid contains
an amino group (NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group linked by a carbon atom called the alpha carbon.
Amino acid deionizes to form
H+ and conjugate base
Essential Amino Acids
Non-essential amino acids
- glutamic acid
- aspartic acid
The most important aspect of the structures of an amino acid from a chemical standpoint is
the R Group
Amino acids are amphoteric meaning
they react with acids and/or bases
If an amnio acid is acidic then
it hase two or more carboxyl groups and one amine group and a has a negative charge
If an amino acid is basic
it contains two amino groups and one carboxyl group and has a net positive charge.
The pH at which the carboxyl group is 1/2 ionized or at equilibrium is the
The isoelectric point (pKa) is
the pH at which the amino acid is one-half ionized and is neutral
the bond between the fatty acid and alcohol is called
a peptide bond forms between
A glycoside bond is formed between
The primary structure of a protein is:
the amino acid sequence that determines the configuration of the amino acid
the secondary structure of a protein
- determines the conformation or relationship of amino acids in procimity to each other within the sequence. called first folding.
- eg: alpha helix or beta pleated sheet
Tertiary structure of protein
second folding. the interaction of distanct amino acids at various locations within the sequence
the complexing of at least two tertiary proteins. there are four tertiary proteins to a quartenary protein held together by covalent bonds.
oxyglobin is ___ protein and deoxyglobin is ___ protein in lungs
Function of proteins
- metabolic regulation (thru enzymes)
- coordination and control (protein hormones)
- defense (waterproof proteins of skin, antibodies and clotting proteins)
Role of fibrous proteins
role of globular proteins
often make up enzymes, hormones and molecules that circulate in bloodstream
3 basic characteristics of enzymes
- saturation limits
- regulation (using cofactors to activate of deactivate enzymes)
Collagen appears in
- Type 1: skin, tendon, bone and cornea of eye
- Type 2: menisci and intervertebral disks
- Type 3: fetal cardiovascular tissue
- Type 4: basment membrane.
Globular protiens have what typoe of conformations?
tertiary and quartenary
Enzymes are comprised of a protein portion called
apoenzyme and a non-protein portion co-enzyme
Enzymes are affected by
pH and temperature
coenzymes are derived from ___ and must bond to ___ before substrate binding can occur
Difference between RNA and DNA
- RNA is a single strand and DNA double Helix
- RNA has Uracil and DNA has Thymine
Three types of RNA
Nucleic acids: function and composition
- store and process information at the molecular level
- made of purines and pyrimadines
Nucleic acids are chains of
nucleotides are composed of
- a sugar
- a phosphate
- nitrogenous base
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