Proteins

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Author:
hoyadavis
ID:
22814
Filename:
Proteins
Updated:
2010-06-09 13:33:10
Tags:
anatomy protein
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Description:
function of protien in body
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  1. The building block of proteins are
    amino acids
  2. 3 types of proteins
    • simple
    • conjugated
    • derived
  3. Simple proteins yield what products when broken down?
    amino acids or products of amino acids
  4. conjugated proteins yield what products when broken down?
    amino acids and non-protein compounds
  5. hemoglobin, myoglobin and immunoglobins are examples of
    conjugated proteins
  6. The globin (protein) of hemoglobin is complex to a
    non protein heme
  7. immunoglobulin is complexed to
    a carbohydrate
  8. Derived proteins
    made in an inactive state and become activated as a result of some chemical triggering device. TYpically have the prefix pro- or the suffix -ogen
  9. An amino acid contains
    an amino group (NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group linked by a carbon atom called the alpha carbon.
  10. Amino acid deionizes to form
    H+ and conjugate base
  11. Essential Amino Acids
    • Arginine
    • Histidine
    • Isoleucine
    • Leucine
    • Lysine
    • Methionine
    • Phenylalanine
    • Threonine
    • Tryptophan
    • Valine
  12. Non-essential amino acids
    • glycine
    • serine
    • cysteine
    • alanine
    • glutamic acid
    • aspartic acid
    • asparagine
    • glutamine
    • proline
    • tryosine
  13. The most important aspect of the structures of an amino acid from a chemical standpoint is
    the R Group
  14. Amino acids are amphoteric meaning
    they react with acids and/or bases
  15. If an amnio acid is acidic then
    it hase two or more carboxyl groups and one amine group and a has a negative charge
  16. If an amino acid is basic
    it contains two amino groups and one carboxyl group and has a net positive charge.
  17. The pH at which the carboxyl group is 1/2 ionized or at equilibrium is the
    pK
  18. The isoelectric point (pKa) is
    the pH at which the amino acid is one-half ionized and is neutral
  19. the bond between the fatty acid and alcohol is called
    ester bond
  20. a peptide bond forms between
    amino acids
  21. A glycoside bond is formed between
    glycogen (sugars)
  22. The primary structure of a protein is:
    the amino acid sequence that determines the configuration of the amino acid
  23. the secondary structure of a protein
    • determines the conformation or relationship of amino acids in procimity to each other within the sequence. called first folding.
    • eg: alpha helix or beta pleated sheet
  24. Tertiary structure of protein
    second folding. the interaction of distanct amino acids at various locations within the sequence
  25. Quartenary structure
    the complexing of at least two tertiary proteins. there are four tertiary proteins to a quartenary protein held together by covalent bonds.
  26. oxyglobin is ___ protein and deoxyglobin is ___ protein in lungs
    relaxed; flexed
  27. Function of proteins
    • Support
    • movement
    • transport
    • buffering
    • metabolic regulation (thru enzymes)
    • coordination and control (protein hormones)
    • defense (waterproof proteins of skin, antibodies and clotting proteins)
  28. Two types of proteins
    • fibrous
    • globular
  29. Role of fibrous proteins
    generally structural
  30. role of globular proteins
    often make up enzymes, hormones and molecules that circulate in bloodstream
  31. 3 basic characteristics of enzymes
    • specificity
    • saturation limits
    • regulation (using cofactors to activate of deactivate enzymes)
  32. Collagen appears in
    • Type 1: skin, tendon, bone and cornea of eye
    • Type 2: menisci and intervertebral disks
    • Type 3: fetal cardiovascular tissue
    • Type 4: basment membrane.
  33. Globular protiens have what typoe of conformations?
    tertiary and quartenary
  34. Enzymes are comprised of a protein portion called
    apoenzyme and a non-protein portion co-enzyme
  35. Enzymes are
    biological catalyst
  36. Enzymes are affected by
    pH and temperature
  37. coenzymes are derived from ___ and must bond to ___ before substrate binding can occur
    vitamins; enzyme
  38. Difference between RNA and DNA
    • RNA is a single strand and DNA double Helix
    • RNA has Uracil and DNA has Thymine
  39. Three types of RNA
    • messenger
    • transfer
    • ribosomal
  40. Nucleic acids: function and composition
    • store and process information at the molecular level
    • made of purines and pyrimadines
  41. Nucleic acids are chains of
    nucleotides
  42. nucleotides are composed of
    • a sugar
    • a phosphate
    • nitrogenous base

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