Mesoamerican Archeology Test 2

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Mesoamerican Archeology Test 2
2010-06-15 12:32:58
Mesoamerica Archeology Hieroglyphs Maya

Mesoamerican Archeology Test 2
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  1. The 4 Mesoamerican Writing Systems are:
    • Zapotec
    • Mixtec
    • Aztec
    • Maya
  2. Maya glyphs of the postclassical period are usually found in?
    Paper books or "codices"
  3. Where are Maya glyphs of the classic period normally found?
    On Stela, alters, or lintels. Also found on artifacts such as pottery
  4. Maya invented the concept of ______
  5. The Maya calendar ended in:
    AD 2012
  6. Maya Calendar started in _____
  7. Time recorded using a base number of ___
    20 (vigesimal system)
  8. The long count ran:
    a 5126 year cycle
  9. The Maya calendar was ____
  10. The short count ran:
    • a 256 year cycle
    • also know as the Katun Count
  11. The calendar round ran:
    • a 52 year cycle
    • it is the amount of time it takes the tzolkin and haab to repeat
  12. ____, _____, _____, where the only people that could read the glyphs
    Priests, Scribes, Merchants
  13. The four Maya codices are:
    • Dresden (1250-1345 AD)
    • Madrid (15th-16th Century)
    • Paris (1200 AD)
    • Grolier (1230 AD)
  14. Which of the four codices is thought to be a possible fake?
    Grolier, it is not as artistic or vivid. It is very plain and not done very well so it thought to be fake.
  15. How many days did the Roman calendar have?
  16. What is the current calendar used today and how many days is it?
    The Gregorian Calendar of 365.2425 days (established 1582)
  17. How many days did the Maya calendar have?
    365 days
  18. How long was the Maya religious calendar?
    260 days
  19. How was the Maya calendar broke down (months, days)
    18 months, 20 days in a month, plus one month of only 5 days, totaling 365 days
  20. What is the Tzolkin?
    • 260 day cycle
    • also called the sacred almanac of 20 days with numbers 1-13
  21. The Haab was:
    • 365 day calendar
    • also called the astronomical, topical, or vague year
  22. What is the time called that only has 5 days in a month and why is it important?
    The Uayeb was thought to be 5 days of bad luck, cursed, dark.

  23. This is an example of what Maya writing system and how is it read?
    • Bar and Dot
    • A bar is 5 a dot is 1 (the head associated with the date varies)
  24. What are the Maya calendar cycles and how long did they last?
    • *Tzolkin (religious calendar)-260 days
    • *Haab (day calendar)-365 days
    • *Calendar Round (similar to a century)-52 years
    • *Long Count- 5126 years (from 3114 BC- AD 2012)
  25. Katun endings celebrated ___
    the end of a 20 year period of time

  26. This is what system?
    Base 20
  27. How much time do the first 5 glyphs represent?
    • Kin=1day
    • Uinal=20 Kin=1 month
    • Tun=18 Uinal=360 days=1 year
    • Katun=20 Tun=7,200 days=20 years
    • Baktun=20 Katun=144000 days=400 years

  28. What is the top glyph called?
    The ISIG, which is found before all dates
  29. (December 7, 36 BC) is the ____.
    Earliest long count found
  30. is the earliest long count found in the Maya _____. It was found on Stela __
    Lowlands, 2
  31. What does the first number of a long count signify?
    Example:, what does the 8 signify?
    The cycle
  32. What are the three most common cycles?
    Cycle 8,9,10
  33. What time period are these cycles from?
    Late preclassic to postclassic
  34. Cycle 8 is year_____
    Cycle 9 is year_____
    Cycle 10 is year ____
    41 AD, 435 AD, 830 AD

  35. These glyphs are ____ signs

  36. These glyphs are ____ signs
  37. Diego de Landa
    • *Priest that came to convert Mayans
    • *Burned all but 4 Maya codex
    • *Made notes on Maya
    • *Tried to make an "Alphabet" of the glyphs
  38. Brasseur de Bourbourg
    • *Wrote Motul Dictionary
    • *Attempted to interpret Maya language
  39. Ernest Forsteman
    • *Published Dresden Codex
    • *Discovered Maya use of: base 20, concept of 0, Venus tables
  40. Daniel Brinton
    • *Studied hieroglyphs
    • *Started first Anthropology Program in US
  41. Joseph Goodman
    Found correlation between our calendar and the Maya calendar (wasn't successful)
  42. Sylvanus Morley
    • *Long count guru
    • *Corpus of Maya inscriptions
    • *US spy
  43. J. Eric Thompson
    • *50 year career in Maya study
    • *Catalog of Maya Hieroglyphs
    • *Only believed the glyphs to be non-phonetic (they were pictures and did not represent sounds)
  44. Heinrich Berlin
    *Discovered Emblem Glyphs
  45. What are emblem glyphs?
    Glyphs assigned to a certain site and only that site
  46. Palenque and Yazchilan have _____
    multiple emblem glyphs
  47. Dos Pilas and ____ share similar emblem glyphs. Possible because _____.
    Tikal, a person from Tikal founded Dos Pilas
  48. Tatiana Proskouriakoff
    • Major glyph interpreter
    • proved that Maya texts contained historical information relating to people, places, and events

  49. This is a glyph representing _____. It is also called the ______.
    Death, upended turtle or frog

  50. This glyph represents _____. It is often called the _____.
    Accession to a higher power such as king, the tooth ace glyph
  51. Yuri Knorosov
    Discovered glyphs represent sounds
  52. David Kelley
    • *First to interpret glyphs
    • *Used a combination of Proskouriakoff and Knorosov
  53. Ian Grahm
    Wants to make a hand drawn documentation of all the glyphs at all the sites
  54. Mesa Redondas de Palenque
    • *Created by Merie Green Robertson
    • *Every year for 20 years the top in Mayan glyphs would discuss there findings
    • *1973-1993
  55. Linda Schele
    • *"Dean of translation"
    • *Left all her work open so you do not need a copyright permission letter to use it
  56. Stephen Houston and David Stuart are the "_______"
    Next generation
  57. Several glyphs may represent the _____
    Same thing

  58. What is the Palenque Triad
    A triad of gods that appear many times in many places

  59. This glyph is thought to be of?
    A king being taken into the underworld after death
  60. Lord Water
    • of Caracol
    • Belize defeated the site of Tikal in war (AD 562)
  61. Pacal "The Great"
    interred in tomb in Palenque (AD 681)
  62. Yuknoom
    • of Site Q
    • Flink and shield destroyed by Tikal (AD 695)
  63. Ah Cacao
    placed in Burial 116 at Tikal (AD 734)
  64. 18 Rabbit
    • of Copan
    • captured by Quirigua (AD 738)
  65. Bird Jaguar
    • of Yaxchilan
    • Claims throne (AD 752)
  66. Ethnography has led to:
    a portrayal of Maya society as egalitarian with vacant towns
  67. Ethnohistory has led to:
    a portrayal of Maya society as 2 class with nobles and commoners
  68. Archaeology had led to:
    a portrayal of Maya society as being comprised on many social levels

  69. This is a map of:
    • Veracruz, Mexico (same location as Olmec)
    • Huaxtoc (top)
    • Tajic (next)
    • Zapotal (last)
  70. Huaxtec
    • perfectly round temple
    • Mixteca-Puebla style
  71. What is Mixteca-Puebla Style
    • Huaztec style
    • Band of shapes going around artifacts
  72. Zapotal
    • Remojadas: life size figurines
    • Found mostly in trash pits

  73. The shaded area on this map includes which sites?
    • Huaxtec
    • Tajin
    • Zapotal
  74. El Tajin
    • Temple of Niche
    • Walled court yard that was not enclosed
    • Step-frets
    • Heart sacrifice after ball game

  75. The shaded area of the map indicates the:
  76. Toltecs are the most ___
    disputed cultural group
  77. Cholula, Mexico
    • drunkards mural
    • has evidence of a transition in culture
    • Toltec

  78. This is the :
    • Drunkard's mural
    • Found at Cholula, Mexico
    • Has Teo and Maya influence
    • Toltec
  79. Cacaztla, Mexico
    • known for murals
    • the "Mayanized" Mexicans
    • Murals were very Maya like
    • Toltec

  80. This mural is from:
    Cacaztla, Mexico
  81. Cantona, Mexico
    • Minimal archeological work
    • 24 different ball courts
    • 18 ball courts used at once
    • buildings built using no mortar, just weight of stone
    • many phalli sculptures found
    • Toltec

  82. This is found at which site?
    • Calixtlahuaca
    • Toltec
  83. Xochicalco, Mexico
    • Toltec
    • Ceremonial center?
    • On top of plateau flattened by Toltec
    • could hold 20000 people
    • found possible image of Quetzalcoatl
    • Walls surrounded the main structure
    • Had roads
  84. The Toltec Capital is:
    Tula, Mexico
  85. Tula, Mexico
    • Terraced pyramids
    • Warrior sculptures
    • Chacmool
    • Heart Sacrifice

  86. This is a:
    • Chacmool
    • Found all throughout Mesoamerica
    • Found at Toltec, Maya, Aztec sites
  87. Jorge Acosta
    • Excavated at Tula
    • Fist to call it the Capital
    • Butterfly Chest plates on warriors
  88. Sculputers found at Tula:
    • Atlantean Figures
    • Standard Bearers
    • Roof/Wall ornamentation
    • High Status Itmes

  89. This is an example of:
    • Plumbate pottery
    • From Tula

  90. This is an example of:
    • Open-Work incensario
    • Found at Chichen-Itza

  91. This is an example of a:
    Warrior statue found at Tula, Chichen-Itza

  92. This is an example of:
    • Tzompantli (Skull racks)
    • Found at Tula, Chichen-Itza, Uxmal, Tenochtitlan
  93. Classic Maya Trade:
    Traded in the lowlands and elsewhere in Mesoamerica
  94. Classic Maya Cities:
    • The Maya Built grand building
    • Built canals, ball courts, and large plazas
  95. Classic Maya Warfare:
    • Conflicts were over control of land
    • Warfare was bloody, hand to hand

  96. This is a map of:
    Locations of classic Maya site