Definition Terms

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etopete
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228174
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Definition Terms
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2013-08-01 01:09:28
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ANT 144
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Latin America
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  1. Encomienda
    an institution used in the Reconquista; army forces were paid with land grant that included all the people that lived in that land; gave control over land and a group of laborers; required the encomendero to Christianize the Indians and “protect” them from other colonial forces; in return encomenderos demanded tribute and labor; permitted many abuses but spread quickly
  2. Repartimiento
    replaced the encomienda institution partly due to abuse and enslavement of Indians; crown had said that Indians couldn’t be enslaved; a temporary allotment of indigenous labor for a specific task; mostly from 1550s to 1650s
  3. Requerimiento
    pronouncement to be read aloud as an ultimatum to the conquered Indians; demanded acceptance of Spanish rule and Christianity or risk death; read in Spanish with no interpreter; sometimes read without an audience; prime purpose was to establish “legal” justification for Spanish invaders; (what did the document actually say)
  4. Mestizaje
    Spain and Portugal leaders of new countries embraced the principles of the Enlightenment and European liberalism: abolished the colonial category of “indio” (Indian) and slavery; denied the continued presence of indigenous people
  5. Cuturalist definition of race
    changing occupation, clothes, language or place of residency could change racial classification; the Central American term ladino is an “Indian” who is culturally “Western”; notion of “culture as race”; racism without race: racism against the world view of indigenous people
  6. Coloniality of Power
    history of exploitation among the indigenous indians in Latin America. Based on the “inferiority” of a race. Race, as an ideology dictates a non-europeans place in the workforce, and beyond. It is the Eurocentric mindset of the europeans clashing against that of the ethnocentric mindsets of the native indians. The eurocentric perspective presented itself as the dominant form of authority. (i.e Anibal Quijanos “Coloniality of Power, Eurocentrism, and Latin America”). Global power of hegemonic capitalist power: could not have existed without colonial period. Could not have existed without mentality and extraction of resources.
  7. Debt peonage
    labor force tied to land at minimum rates of pay. Landowners advanced goods to low paid agricultural workers on security of their future wages. Then charge high interest rates, peon remains entirely in his debt and can’t afford to move elsewhere, in search of better paid job
  8. Land reform
    breaking up large estates to give land to landless peasants; goal is to increase production and capital accumulation that can then be invested in industry and services activities; expropriation or forced sale of large estates to government that distributes to smallholders; a vehicle to disable rural-based political power groups
  9. Metropolis-Satellite economic structure
    a development theory of economic and social history of what is categorized as a developed(capitalist society) and underdeveloped nation. Eurocentric historical perspective on why some countries developed while others remained underdeveloped. The metropolis serves as an instrument to suck capitalist or economic surplus out of its own satellites.(i.e. Gunder Frank’s the metropolis-satellite structure in “The Development of Underdevelopment”).
  10. Developmentalism
    developmentalist approach-inward-oriented industrialization; import substitution to develop own industry; diversify economy, invest in development of own industry; nationalize large-scale industry: mineral mines, oil, sugar; land reform; basic food price controls
  11. Keynesian economics
    Reduction in interest reates, a government investment in infrastructure, an increase in wages and spending. There was also more spending, more sales, more sales led to more manufacturing which led more manufacturing to more jobs. More jobs then more wages and more wages led to more spending. John Keynes believed that the government needed to play a role in creating jobs, preventing massive unemployment, fixing wage. As a welfare state there are more labor rights which means as workers as the best citizen and worker reproduces the nation. There is a development of state services such as healthcare and education and development of social security.
  12. Justicialismo
    as an economic doctrine-to put capital to the service of society for the benefit of the welfare of society; social justice; once class of people (the workers)
  13. Los Chicago Boys
    The Chicago School; Milton Friedman; Chile students go to Chicago School and paid by US government; Chicago graduates return to Latin America as “regional ambassadors” of free-market economics. When they first came back to chile they didn’t have a lot echo or response,(if they had echo there might not have been a coup d’eta, it might have gone about democratically) even in a new university it seemed they were speaking to themselves. It was important that the politicians weren’t really even listening to them until the US had interest in changing economics and then during the coop they became prominent, one of the boys actually writes the document that Pinochet uses, which was one of the building blocks of his dictatorship
  14. Economic Shock Treatment
    Milton Friedman called for “shock treatment”. Electroshock causes seizures to cure severely depressed or psychotic patients. Shock causes rapid economic contraction to jolt economy back into health. The contraction comes from sudden liberalization of trade, privatization, elimination of price controls and subsidies. The expected health comes from the efficiency gained through trade liberalization and privatization as the market returns to its natural balance. Result of shock treatment: in the first year of shock therapy: economy contracted 15% and unemployment rose 20%; also poverty and elimination of social services: privatization of healthcare and social security.
  15. Las Madres de la Plaza de Mayo
    The women who began to gather weekly at the Plaza de Mayo to silently protest clandestine repression. Identified by wearing shawls over their heads with the names of their sons or daughter and dates of when they had disappeared.   In Chile there was a military take over sept 11 1973 which resulted in a military junta and Pinochet was put in power. Allende was put out of power and his cabinet was imprisoned and exiled etc. Extra judicial killings were commonplace of subversives. Detentions in stadiums and underground prisons. It was to some extent a military business alliance. This has resulted in an idea of radical motherhood which is the entire population of the nation are children who must be cared for, maternal values in place of patriarchal values
  16. "Distortion" of economic and political life
    Economic life distortions: inflation, financial repression, collective actorsPolitical life distortions: Violas quote, Peronismo
  17. Atomized rational individual
    Rational choice theory- based on cost/benefit analysis. Choose the most useful product at the lowest cost.
  18. World Bank/IMF
    World Bank/IMF:o   At the end of the WWII the world bank and the iMF financed countries through forty three member countries and had a mandate to prevent future economic shocks and crashes that destabilized Germany. The IMF was to oversee the international monetary system to ensure exchange rate stability and encourage members to exchange restrictions that hinder trade. It was also to promote economic policies that reduced financial speculations and market volatility. This is in theory ro help countries in crisis avoid further crisis. The world bank was to fund large and long term development projects such as dams etc. In the 1970s it invested in green revolution projects (industrialization of ag). In 1980’s it gave the first structural adjustment loans which were to increase foreign exchange. The IMF loans are not only for debt relief. They gave loans with conditions to latin American countries since 1952 but without conditions to western countries. This was part of a US campaign to roll back the developmentalist drive and to open up foreign trade. IMF gives short term loans to countries with balance of payment problems.§  Loan conditionú  Fix balance: export more than you importú  Increase exportsú  Reduce public sector spendingú  Reduce inflationú  Devalue local currencyú  Attract private foreign capital investmento   The world bank debt relief came into being in 1996 where they launched their heavily indebted poor countries initiative which implemented policies to ensure that money saved is redirected toward poverty alleviation efforts. The fraction of debt that countries are asked to forgive is calculated to bring the countries debt to 150% of exports. 35 countries have debt forgiveness. o   At the end of the WWII the world bank and the iMF financed countries through forty three member countries and had a mandate to prevent future economic shocks and crashes that destabilized Germany. The IMF was to oversee the international monetary system to ensure exchange rate stability and encourage members to exchange restrictions that hinder trade. It was also to promote economic policies that reduced financial speculations and market volatility. This is in theory ro help countries in crisis avoid further crisis. The world bank was to fund large and long term development projects such as dams etc. In the 1970s it invested in green revolution projects (industrialization of ag). In 1980’s it gave the first structural adjustment loans which were to increase foreign exchange. The IMF loans are not only for debt relief. They gave loans with conditions to latin American countries since 1952 but without conditions to western countries. This was part of a US campaign to roll back the developmentalist drive and to open up foreign trade. IMF gives short term loans to countries with balance of payment problems.§  Loan conditionú  Fix balance: export more than you importú  Increase exportsú  Reduce public sector spendingú  Reduce inflationú  Devalue local currencyú  Attract private foreign capital investmento   The world bank debt relief came into being in 1996 where they launched their heavily indebted poor countries initiative which implemented policies to ensure that money saved is redirected toward poverty alleviation efforts. The fraction of debt that countries are asked to forgive is calculated to bring the countries debt to 150% of exports. 35 countries have debt forgiveness.
  19. Maquiladora
    A factory worker in Mexico working for a foreign run company that exports its products back to the country of that company. The Maquilas were in such high demand because of their labor was incredibly cheap and they were in the “race to the bottom” ( competition for cheap labor). The Mexican currency was being devalued and foreign countries paid less. Although Maquilas have labor laws (that are actually more protective than the labor laws of the US) these laws are not enforced and often violated, leaving working conditions to be unethical and unsanitary.
  20. Remittance as "pure transfers"
    Remittances is the money that migrants send home to their families that has also a way to inject money into a poor economy. They are used as a national resource to revitalize the economy and often these transfers are solely  viewed as a method of national income. The human gets overlooked so when they talk about remittances as “pure transfers” they are discussing the dehumanized nature of these national plans. Countries are not looking  at the danger and costs to an individual that must migrate to send their earnings-- when really is is these migrants that are boosting and maintaining the economy
  21. Productive/wasteful remittances
    Productive: Economic growth. Used for private care. Invest for insurance, health care, small shops, etc.Wasteful: Consumption. All products bought are imported products.
  22. Subsidary corporate model
    Texaco lawsuit challenged the subsidiary corporate model: Texaco had a fourth-tier subsidiary extracting oil in Ecuador. For Texaco a subsidiary was “tractable, detachable, and ultimately discardable” (Sawyer 2001). But the lawsuit charged that Texaco itself committed illegal acts in investment strategies. Control of extraction and how extractions would be done at the moment in time.
  23. "Phantom citizens"
    For the state and Texaco the peoples of the Amazon were “phantom citizens” (Sawyer 2001). But colonos and indigenous people “strapped on US law” to file their legal claim. The Ecuadorian state and the oil corporations depended on maintaining Amazonian peoples as “phantom citizens.” Had no rights. They were disposable and invisible.
  24. The Villano Project
    Is a photo gallery that contains photos of the Amazon of Ecuador where Arco (an oil company) has been extracting oil and built extraction sites. These photos project a view of the forest that seems untouched, undamaged and clean-- even in the midst of such an invasive industry like oil extraction.
  25. Fujishock
    Fujimori was a technocrat. He was not supposed to apply economic shock therapy, but he did.   When he became in charge of Peru, he created a dictatorship for the 10 years he ruled. Under a dictatorship pharmaceuticals were difficult to acquire in hospitals, therefore shock therapy became a go-to treatment in many facilities. When drugs became more readily accessible, but were still questionable, they were often tested on abandoned patients, most commonly poor women of indigenous descent.
  26. Heterodox economic policy in Peru
    1.   opposed to orthodox, orthodox meaning strictly neoliberal and followed to a tea (devalue currency, eradicate, liberalize market etc….) a mixed economic plan, following both IMF neoliberal plan, ex: devalue, remove tariffs, but not denationalize, so keep oil and tin national, help poor by putting price caps on bread, milk, eggs, and transport. Alan Garcia in Peru implemented in 1985, first person to say we are not going to pay the debt in the way that our export economy can, in our own terms, a modified neoliberal model. Garcia’s example: increases of real wages, essential price freezes, fixing of dollar exchange rates, tax breaks.
  27. Liberalization of drug market in Peru
    Liberalized markets- taxes are removed. illegally sold in the country. Differences between drugs. Health organizations were interested in partnerships to get lower cost drugs.
  28. Buen Vivir
    alternative modernizations (Escobar), alternatives to development (Gudynas); decolonial project (Escobar), going beyond modern Eurocentric tradition (Gudynas). the alternative to development is more sympathetic to its indigenous ancestry and more critical to western development. it is a reaction to neo-liberal market reform and a new government that was more center left, and allowed for the attention of indigenous knowledge.
  29. Dispersing power
    Movement wanted to build communities. Power from below. Not power “over,” but power “to” (active and dispersed power). Horizontal based power (decentralized, not vertical).
  30. The Zapatista Movement
    “We want a world where many worlds can fit.” (EZLN)South Mexico State Chiapas vs. neoliberalism + global capitalism. Autonomous movement. Considered socio-economic system as tools. Invitation to peoples of world to join their struggle, so each can create change in their own communities. Create autonomous communities.

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