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What is a Base Map?
Created from areal and field surveys. This is the starting point of a topographic map.
What is a Topographic Map?
A map to show the features of the earth including elevations, river courses, roads, towns country and state lines
What is a Thematic Map?
Uses a base or topographic map to show data based upon a theme such as population density.
What is a Map Scale?
Details on a map that are expressed in terms of a ratio of size.
1" = 100 miles
What are Time Zones?
Twenty four divisions of the globe that are 15 degrees apart. Each time zone is the distance that earth spins on it's axis for one hour.
What is Cartography?
The art and science of map making.
What are Latitude lines?
Imaginary lines that divide the earth into 360 degrees horizontally.
What are Longitude lines?
Imaginary lines that divide the earth into 360 degree segments and run vertically.
What are Coordinates?
Longitude and latitude measures for a place.
What is Absolute Location?
The exact spot where the longitude and latitude coordinates meet
What is The Equator?
This is the zero degree line latitude that divides the earth into two separate hemispheres.
Another name for latitude lines because they circle the earth and never meet.
What are meridians?
Another name for longitude lines. The prime meridian is at 0 degrees longitude and starts the measuring distance around the globe.
What is the Northern Hemisphere?
The hemisphere above the equator.
What is the Southern Hemisphere?
The hemisphere below the equator.
What is the Western Hemisphere?
The hemisphere west of the Prime Meridian and the international date line.
What is the Western Hemisphere?
The hemisphere east of the Prime Meridian and the international date line.
What are the North and South Poles?
Top of the earth the North pole is measured at 90 degrees north of the equator, the south pole is measured at 90 degrees south of the equator.
Where is the tropic of cancer?
it is located at 23 1/2 degrees north of the equator.
Where is the tropic of Capricorn?
It is located at 23 1/2 degrees south of the equator.
Where is the Arctic Circle?
Measured at 66 1/2 degrees north of the equator.
Where is the Antarctic Circle?
Measured at 66 1/2 degrees south of the equator.
What are the four types of Vegetation zones on the earth?
- - Forests
- - Grasslands
- - Deserts
- - Tundra
What are the five Climate Zones on the earth?
- - Tropical
- - Dry
- - Temperate
- - continental
- - Polar
How is population density measured?
People per square mile or kilometer.
What is a Region of Religion?
This is the identification of the dominant religions of a place, whether Christianity, Hinduism, Judaism, Buddhism, Islam, Shinto, Taoism, or Confucianism. All of these originated in Asia.
What is a Linguistic Region?
This is the identification of the dominant or official language of a place. There are 12 major language families. The Indo-European family (which includes English, Russian, German, French, and Spanish) is spoken over the widest geographic area, but Mandarin Chinese is spoken by the most people.
What are Coral Reefs?
Coral reefs are formed from millions of tiny, tube-shaped polyps, an animal life form encased in tough limestone skeletons. anchored to a rocky surface, polyps eat plankton and miniscule shellfish caught with poisonous tentacles near the mouth. Polyps use calcium carbonate absorbed from chemicals given off by algae to harden their body armor and cement themselves together in fantastic shapes of many colors. Polyps reproduce through eggs and larvae, but the reef grows by branching out shoots of polyps.
What are the three types of Coral Reefs?
- - Fringing reefs – These surround, or "fringe," an island.
- - Barrier reefs – Over the centuries, a fringe reef grows so large that the island sinks down from the weight, and the reef becomes a barrier around the island. Water trapped between the island and the reef is called a lagoon.
- - Atolls – Eventually, the sinking island goes under, leaving the coral reef around the lagoon.
How are Mountains Formed?
Through the movement of plates colliding into each other.
What is Orogeny?
The process of the earths plates pushing against each other to form mountains.
What happens if the plates collide with each other?
The crust buckles and folds causing a chain of mountains such as the Appalachians, or Alps.
What is Seduction?
The denser plate goes under a Continental plate causing the plate to rise such as the Andes.
What happens when an Oceanic plate is driven under another Oceanic plate?
A volcanic mountain such as Philippines or Japan is formen
Name three changes to the earth that humans have done that could harm the earth
- - Cutting into mountains by machine or blasting to build roads or construction sites
- - Cutting down trees and clearing natural growth
- - Building houses and cities
- - Using grassland to graze herds
- - Polluting water sources
- - Polluting the ground with chemical and oil waste
- - Wearing out fertile land and losing topsoil
- - Placing communication lines cross country using poles and wires or underground cable
- - Placing railway lines or paved roads cross country
- - Building gas and oil pipelines cross country
- - Draining wetlands
- - Damming up or re-routing waterways
- Spraying fertilizers, pesticides, and defoliants
- - Hunting animals to extinction or near extinction
How do People adapt to their environment?
- - Clothing for cold climates
- - Drilling for water
- - Building shelters
- - Air conditioning
What is carrying capacity?
Carrying capacity is the maximum, sustained level of use of an environment can incur without sustaining significant environmental deterioration that would eventually lead to environmental destruction.
What is Spatial Organization?
Spatial organization in geography refers to how things or people are grouped in a given space anywhere on earth. Spatial organization applies to the placement of settlements, whether hamlets, towns, or cities.
What are the Five Themes in Geography?
- Location – This includes relative location (described in terms of surrounding geography such as a river, sea coast, or mountain) and absolute location (the specific point of latitude and longitude).
- Place – This includes physical characteristics (beaches, deserts, mountains, plains, and waterways) and human characteristics (features created by humans, such asarchitecture, roads, religion, industries or occupations, and food and folk practices).
- Human-environmental interaction – This includes human adaptation to the environment (using an umbrella when it rains), human modification of the environment (building terraces to prevent soil erosion), and human dependence on the environment for food, water, and natural resources.
- Movement –Interaction through trade, migration, communications, political boundaries, ideas, and fashions all fall under this theme.
- Regions – This includes formal regions (a city, state, country, or other geographical organization as defined by political boundaries), functional regions (defined by a common function or connection, such as a school district), and vernacular regions (informal divisions determined by perceptions or one’s mental image, such as the "Far East").
What is Geomorphology?
The study of landforms is call geomorphology or physiography, a science that considers the relationships between geological structures and surface landscape features. It is also concerned with the processes that change these features, such as erosion, deposition, and plate tectonics. Biological factors can also affect landforms. Examples are when corals build a coral reef or when plants contribute to the development of a salt marsh or a sand dune. Rivers, coastlines, rock types, slope formation, ice, erosion, and weathering are all part of geomorphology.
Oceans are the largest bodies of water on earth and cover nearly 71% of the earth's surface. Name the five major oceans.
- - Atlantic
- - Pacific
- - Indian
- - Arctic
- - Southern (surrounds Antarctica).
What is a sea?
Seas are smaller than oceans and are somewhat surrounded by land like a lake, but lakes are fresh water and seas are salt water. Seas include the Mediterranean, Baltic, Caspian, Caribbean, and Coral.
What is a Lake?
Lakes are bodies of water in a depression on the earth's surface. Examples of lakes are the Great Lakes and Lake Victoria.
How is a river different from a canal?
Rivers are a channeled flow of water that start out as a spring or stream formed by runoff from rain or snow. Rivers flow from higher to lower ground, and usually empty into a sea or ocean. Great rivers of the world include the Amazon, Nile, Rhine, Mississippi, Ganges, Mekong, and Yangtze.
Canals are artificial waterways constructed by humans to connect two larger water bodies. Examples of canals are the Panama and the Suez.
What is a mountain?
Mountains are elevated landforms that rise fairly steeply from the earth's surface to a summit of at least 1,000-2,000 feet (definitions vary) above sea level.
What is a Hill?
Hills are elevated landforms that rise 500-2,000 feet above sea level.
What is a Foothill?
Foothills are a low series of hills found between a plain and a mountain range.
What is a valley?
Valleys are a long depression located between hills or mountains. They are usually products of river erosion. Valleys can vary in terms of width and depth, ranging from a few feet to thousands of feet.
What is a Plateau?
Plateaus are elevated landforms that are fairly flat on top. They may be as high as 10,000 feet above sea level and are usually next to mountains.
What is a Mesa?
Mesas are flat areas of upland. Their name is derived from the Spanish word for table. They are smaller than plateaus and often found in arid or semi-arid areas.
What is a Plain?
Plains are extensive areas of low-lying, flat, or gently undulating land, and are usually lower than the landforms around them. Plains near the seacoast are called lowlands.
What is a Desert?
Deserts are large, dry areas that receive less than 10 inches of rain per year. They are almost barren, containing only a few patches of vegetation.
What is a Delta?
Deltas are accumulations of silt deposited at river mouths into the seabed. They are eventually converted into very fertile, stable ground by vegetation, becoming important crop-growing areas. Examples include the deltas of the Nile, Ganges, and Mississippi River.
What is a Basin?
Basins come in various types. They may be low areas that catch water from rivers; large hollows that dip to a central point and are surrounded by higher ground, as in the Donets and Kuznetsk basins in Russia; or areas of inland drainage in a desert when the water can't reach the sea and flows into lakes or evaporates in salt flats as a result. An example is the Great Salt Lake in Utah.
What is the difference between a marsh and a swamp?
Marshes have no trees and are always wet because of frequent floods and poor drainage that leaves shallow water. Plants are mostly grasses, rushes, reeds, typhas, sedges, and herbs.
Swamps have trees and dry periods. The water is very slow-moving, and is usually associated with adjacent rivers or lakes.
What is the difference between the taiga and the tundra?
Taiga has colder winters and hotter summers than tundra because of its distance from the Arctic Ocean. Taiga is the world's largest forest region, located just south of the tundra line. It contains huge mineral resources and fur-bearing animals.
Tundra is a Russian word describing marshy plain in an area that has a very cold climate but receives little snow. The ground is usually frozen, but is quite spongy when it is not.
What is a Humid Continental Climate?
A humid continental climate is one that has four seasons, including a cold winter and a hot summer, and sufficient rainfall for raising crops. Such climates can be found in the United States, Canada, and Russia. The best farmlands and mining areas are found in these countries.
What is a Prairie Climate?
Prairie climates, or steppe regions, are found in the interiors of Asia and North America where there are dry flatlands (prairies that receive 10-20 inches of rain per year). These dry flatlands can be grasslands or deserts.
What is a Subtropical climate?
Subtropical climates are very humid areas in the tropical areas of Japan, China, Australia, Africa, South America, and the United States. The moisture, carried by winds traveling over warm ocean currents, produces long summers and mild winters. It is possible to produce a continuous cycle of a variety of crops.
What is a Marine Climate?
A marine climate is one near or surrounded by water. Warm ocean winds bring moisture, mild temperatures year round, and plentiful rain. These climates are found in Western Europe and parts of the United States, Canada, Chile, New Zealand, and Australia.
What is physical geography?
Physical geography is the study of climate, water, and land and their relationships with each other and humans. Physical geography locates and identifies the earth's surface features and explores how humans thrive in various locations according to crop and goods production.
What is Cultural Geography?
Cultural geography is the study of the influence of the environment on human behaviors as well as the effect of human activities such as farming, building settlements, and grazing livestock on the environment. Cultural geography also identifies and compares the features of different cultures and how they influence interactions with other cultures and the earth.
What is Physical location?
Physical location refers to the placement of the hemispheres and the continents.
What is Political Location?
Political location refers to the divisions within continents that designate various countries. These divisions are made with borders, which are set according to boundary lines arrived at by legal agreements.
What is a natural resource?
Natural resources are things provided by nature that have commercial value
What is a renewable resource?
Renewable resources are those that can be replenished, such as wind, solar radiation, tides, and water (with proper conservation and clean-up). Soil is renewable with proper conservation and management techniques, and timber can be replenished with replanting. Living resources such as fish and wildlife can replenish themselves if they are not over-harvested.
What is a Non-renewable resource?
Nonrenewable resources are those that cannot be replenished. These include fossil fuels such as oil and coal and metal ores. These cannot be replaced or reused once they have been burned, although some of their products can be recycled.
What is a Commodity?
Commodities are natural resources that have to be extracted and purified rather than created, such as mineral ores.
What is a map projection?
Because the world is round map makers need some way to divide the map to print is on a flat piece of paper.
What contribution did the civilization of Sumer leave?
Sumer used the first known writing system, which enabled the Sumerians to leave a sizeable written record of their myths and religion; advanced the development of the wheel and irrigation; and urbanized their culture with a cluster of cities.
What contribution did Egypt give?
Egypt was united by the Nile River. Egyptians originally settled in villages on its banks; had a national religion that held their pharaohs as gods; had a central government that controlled civil and artistic affairs; and had writing and libraries.
What contribution did the Indus Valley give?
The Indus Valley was also called Harappan after the city of Harappa. This civilization started in the 3rd and 4th centuries BC and was widely dispersed over 400,000 square miles. It had a unified culture of luxury and refinement, no known national government, an advanced civic system, and prosperous trade routes.
What are four early empires?
- Mesopotamia had a series of short-term empires that failed because of their oppression of subject peoples.
- Egypt also had a series of governments after extending its territory beyond the Nile area. Compared to Mesopotamia, these were more stable and long-lived because they blended different peoples to create a single national identity.
- Greece started as a group of city-states that were united by Alexander the Great and joined to create an empire that stretched from the Indus River to Egypt and the Mediterranean coast. Greece blended Greek values with those of the local cultures, which collectively became known as Hellenistic society.
- Rome was an Italian city-state that grew into an empire extending from the British Isles across Europe to the Middle East. It lasted for 1,000 years and became the foundation of the Western world's culture, language, and laws.
Who was Zeus/Jupiter?
Head of the Pantheon, god of the sky
Who was Hera/Juno?
Wife of Zeus/Jupiter, goddess of marriage
Who was Poseidon/Neptune?
God of the seas.
Who was Demeter/Ceres?
Goddess of grain
Who was Apollo?
God of the sun, law, music, archery, healing, and truth
Who was Artemis/Diana?
Goddess of the moon, wild creatures, and hunting
Who was Athena/Minerva?
Goddess of civilized life, handicrafts, and agriculture
Who was Aphrodite/Venus?
Goddess of love and beauty
Who was Dionysus/Bacchus?
God of wine and vegetation
Who was Hades/Pluto?
God of the underworld and the dead
Who was Eros/Cupid?
Minor god of love
Who was Hestia/Vesta?
Goddess of the hearth or home
Who was Hermes/Mercury
Minor god of gracefulness and swiftness
When did the Chinese empire start?
China – Since the end of the Warring States period in 221 BC, China has functioned as an empire. Although the dynasties changed several times, the basic governmental structure remained the same into the 20th century. The Chinese also have an extensive written record of their culture which heavily emphasizes history, philosophy, and a common religion.
What regulates life in India more then the government?
Religious beliefs such as the caste system and guilds.
What time frame was the middle ages?
approximately 500-1500 AD
What were the key elements of the middle ages?
- Roman Catholicism was the cultural and religious center of medieval life, extending into politics and economics.
- Knights, with their systems of honor, combat, and chivalry, were loyal to their king. Peasants, or serfs, served a particular lord and his lands.
- universities were established that still function in modern times.
- The Crusades, the recurring wars between European Christians and Middle East Muslims, raged over the Holy Lands.
- One of the legendary leaders was Charles the Great, or Charlemagne, who created an empire across France and Germany around 800 AD.
- The Black Death plague swept across Europe from 1347-1350, leaving between one third and one half of the population dead.
Why did the protestant reformation happen?
The dominance of the Catholic Church during the Middle Ages in Europe gave it immense power, which encouraged corrupt practices such as the selling of indulgences and clerical positions.
Who is Petrarch?
An Italian scholar, writer, and key figure in northern Italy, which is where the Renaissance started and where chief patrons came from the merchant class
Who is Leonardo da Vinci?
An artist and inventer
Who were Michelangelo and Raphael?
Who was Desiderius Erasmus?
Applied historical scholarship to the New Testament and laid the seeds for the Protestant Reformation
Who was Sir Thomas More?
A lawyer and author who wrote Utopia
Who was Nicolò Machiavelli?
Author of Prince and Discourses, which proposed a science of human nature and civil life
Who was William Shakespeare?
A renowned playwright and poet
Who was Giovanni da Verrazano and Jacques Cartier?
Explored the North American coast and the St. Lawrence Seaway for France
Who was Samuel de Champlain?
Founded Quebec and set up a fur empire on the St. Lawrence Seaway
Who was Fr. Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet?
Were the first Europeans to travel down the Mississippi in 1673.
Who was Rene-Robert de la Salle?
Explored the Great Lakes and the Illinois and Mississippi Rivers from 1679-1682, claiming all the land from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico and from the Appalachians to the Rockies for France.
Who was Juan Ponce de Leon?
In 1513, he became the first European in Florida; established the oldest European settlement in Puerto Rico; discovered the Gulf Stream; and searched for the fountain of youth.
Who was Alonso Alvarez de Pineda?
He charted the Gulf Coast from Florida to Mexico in 1519. Probably the first European in Texas, he claimed it for Spain.
Who was Panfilo de Narvaez?
He docked in Tampa Bay with Cabeza de Vaca in 1528, claimed Florida for Spain, and then sailed the Gulf Coast.
Who was Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca?
He got lost on foot in Texas and New Mexico. Estevanico, or Esteban, a Moorish slave, was a companion who guided them to Mexico.
Who was Francisco Vásquez de Coronado?
While searching for gold in 1540, he became the first European to explore Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona.
Who was Hernando De Soto?
He was the first European to explore the southeastern United States from Tallahassee to Natchez.
When was the first colony in Virginia?
In 1585, Sir Walter Raleigh landed on Roanoke Island and sent Arthur Barlow to the mainland, which they named Virginia.
When was James town settled?
The first permanent English colony was founded by Captain John Smith in Jamestown in 1607.
When did Virginia get it's first house of Burgesses?
1619, although the English government was indifferent to the colony.
When was Massachusetts settled?
The pilgrims landed in Plymouth in 1620. their original destination was Virginia. By 1629 there were 400 Puritans in Salem which is famous for the witch trials.
When was Boston settled?
Boston was established in 1630 and Harvard University was established in 1636.
What was Maryland established for?
Maryland was established by Lord Baltimore in 1632 in the hopes of providing refuge for English Catholics. The Protestant majority, however, opposed this religious tolerance.
How was Rhode Island formed?
Roger Williams was banished from Massachusetts in 1636 because he called for separation of church and state. He established the Rhode Island colony in 1647 and had 800 settlers by 1650, including Anne Hutchinson and her "Antinomians," who attacked clerical authority.
How was Pennsylvania Formed?
In 1681, William Penn received a royal charter for the establishment of Pennsylvania as a colony for Quakers. However, religious tolerance allowed immigrants from a mixed group of denominations, who prospered from the beginning.
Why did the British Colonies Rebel?
- - England was controlling
- - During the french and Indian was Americans served under the British Crown but were treated as inferiors.
- - It was feared that the Anglican Church might try to expand to the colonies and inhibit religious freedom
- - Heavy taxation
- - The colonies had no official representation in England and wanted to govern themselves
- - There were fears that Britain would block western expansion
- - Local government was already established
What are the important events leading up to the revolutionary war?
- - Boston Massacre
- - Commodities of Correspondence was set up to transmit ideas and create a unified response
- - The Boston Tea Party
- - First Continental Congress
- - The Shot heard around the world
- 1775 Concord, English soldiers were sent to confiscate the guns of the people they were met by the minute men.
What were the major turning points of the revolution?
The actions of the Second Continental Congress – This body established the Continental Army and chose George Washington as its commanding general. They allowed printing of money and created government offices.
"Common Sense" – Published in 1776 by Thomas Paine, this pamphlet calling for independence was widely distributed.
The Declaration of Independence – Written by Thomas Jefferson, it was signed on July 4, 1776 by the Continental Congress assembled in Philadelphia.
Alliance with France – Benjamin Franklin negotiated an agreement with France to fight with the Americans in 1778.
Treaty of Paris – In 1782, it signaled the official end of the war, granted independence to the colonies, and gave them generous territorial rights.
Who opposed the constitution as it stood in 1787 when it was ratified?
The anti-federalists who wanted a bill of rights added. It was added to the constitution in 1791.
Who made the Louisiana purchase?
Thomas Jefferson made the Louisiana purchase in 1803 for 15 million dollars. This was a major purchase that eliminated the French threat and allowed the settlers to move westward.
What was the War of 1812 all about?
War between France and England made trade with the United States harder. American shops were taken and sailors were imprisoned. Native Americans under the leadership of Tecumseh sided with the British. The British captured Washington, D.C., and burned the White House, but Dolly Madison had enough forethought to save priceless American treasures, such as the Gilbert Stuart portrait of George Washington. Most battles, however, came to a draw. As a result, in 1815, when the British ended the war with France, they negotiated for peace with the United States as well under the Treaty of Ghent. A benefit of the war was that it motivated Americans to become more self-sufficient due to increased manufacturing and fewer imports.
What was the The Monroe Doctrine?
Conceived by President James Monroe in 1823, this foreign policy warned European powers to cease colonization of Central and South America or face military intervention by the United States. In return, the United States would not meddle in the political affairs or standing colonies of Europe.
What was the The Missouri Compromise?
In 1820, there were 11 free states and 11 slave states. The fear of a power imbalance between slave and free states when Missouri petitioned to become a slave state brought about this agreement. Maine was brought in as a free state; the southern border of Missouri was set as the northernmost line of any slave territory; and the western states could come in as free states, while Arkansas and Florida could be slave states.
What was Manifest Destiny?
This was a popular belief during the 1840s that it was the right and duty of the United States to expand westward to the Pacific. The idea became a slogan for the flood of settlers and expansionist power grabs.
What happened under Andrew Jackson's presidency?
- The start of the Democratic Party
- Jeffersonian Democracy, a system governed by middle and upper class educated property holders, was replaced by Jacksonian Democracy, a system that allowed universal white male suffrage.
- The Indian Removal Act
- The issue of nullification, the right of states to nullify any federal laws they thought unconstitutional, came to a head over tariffs. However, a strong majority vote in Congress supporting the Tariff Acts cemented the policy that states must comply with federal laws.
What was the Whig Party?
A political party that existed from 1833 to 1856. It started in opposition to Jackson's authoritarian policies, and was particularly concerned with defending the supremacy of Congress over the executive branch, states' rights, economic protectionism, and modernization. A split of slavery caused the party to dissolve.
What did James Fenimore Cooper write?
The Last of the Mohicans and The Deerslayer.
What did Ralph Waldo Emerson write?
"Self-Reliance" and "The American Scholar."
What did Nathaniel Hawthorne write?
The Scarlet Letter, The House of Seven Gables,
What did Herman Melville write?
Moby Dick, Billy Budd, and "Bartleby the Scrivener."
What did Edgar Allan Poe write?
"The Tell-Tale Heart," "The Pit and the Pendulum," "Annabel Lee," and "The Raven."
What did Harriet Beecher Stowe write?
Uncle Tom's Cabin
What did Henry David Thoreau write?
Walden and Civil Disobedience.
What did Walt Whitman write?
Leaves of Grass and "O Captain! My Captain!"
What did Susan B. Anthony do?
A women's rights and abolition activist, she lectured across the nation for suffrage, property and wage rights, and labor organizations for women.
What did Dorothea Dix do?
She created the first American asylums for the treatment of mental illness and served as the Superintendent of Army Nurses during the War Between the States.
Who was Frederick Douglass?
He was an escaped slave who became an abolitionist leader, government official, and writer.
Who was William Lloyd Garrison?
He was an abolitionist and the editor of the Liberator, the leading anti-slavery newspaper of the time.
Who was Joseph Smith?
He founded the Latter Day Saints in 1827 and wrote the Book of Mormon.
Who was Horace Mann?
He was a leader of the common school movement that made public education a right of all Americans.
Who was Elizabeth Cady Stanton?
With Lucretia Mott, she held the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848, demanding women's suffrage and other reforms. From the 1850s onward, she worked with Susan B. Anthony.
Who was Brigham Young?
He was the leader of the Mormons when they fled religious persecution, built Salt Lake City, and settled much of the West. He was the first governor of the Utah Territory.
What was the Compromise of 1850?
Allowed those who lived in the Mexican cession to decide for themselves whether to be a free or slave territory
What was The Fugitive Slave Law of 1850?
Allowed slave owners to go into free states to retrieve their escaped slaves
What did the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 Do?
It repealed the Missouri Compromise of 1820 to allow the lands from the Louisiana Purchase to settle the slavery issue by popular sovereignty. Outraged Northerners responded by defecting from the Whig Party and starting the Republican Party.
What does the term Bleeding Kansas mean?
Civil war broke out between pro- and anti-slavery advocates while Kansas was trying to formalize its statutes before being admitted as a state
What did the Dred Scott vs. Sandford case was decide?
Congress had no authority to exclude slavery from the territories, which in effect meant that the Missouri Compromise had been unconstitutional.
Who was the president of the Confederacy?
Who commanded the Southern Army during the civil war?
Robert E. Lee
Who commanded the US Army during the civil war?
Ulysses S. Grant after a series of unsuccessful commanders.
Where did General Lee surrender?
Appomattox Court House in Virginia in April, 1865
What did the 13th amendment do?
Declared slavery illegal.
What did the 14th amendment do?
Made all persons born or naturalized in the country U.S. citizens
What did the 15th amendment do?
Made it illegal to deny individuals the right to vote on the grounds of race
The Transcontinental Railroad was built from 1865 to 1969 what did it do?
It connected the east coast to the west coast allowing goods to be carried throughout the country.
What did Gold and silver mining do?
It brought prospectors looking for riches which contributed to the settlement of the west.
What did Cattle ranching do?
It became big business during the mid 1800's. However, by the 1880's fields were plowed, fences were put up and the Grate Planes became the America's Bread Basket?
What is the The Gilded Age?
An age between 1870's to 1890's where elite families gained tremendous wealth. Such people were the Vanderbilts, Ascots, and Rockefellers
What were the Robber Barons?
Industrial owners that took advantage of the working man.
What is The Truman Doctrine?
Was a policy designed to protect free peoples everywhere against oppression.
What was the The Marshall Plan?
This devoted $12 billion to rebuild Western Europe and strengthen its defenses.
What was The Organization of American States?
This was established to bolster democratic relations in the Americas.
What was The Berlin Blockade?
The Soviets tried to starve out West Berlin, so the United States provided massive supply drops by air
What is The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)?
This was formed to militarily link the United States and western Europe so that an attack on one was an attack on both
What is The Korean War (1950-53)?
This divided the country into the communist North and the democratic South.
Waht is the The McCarthy era (1950-54)?
Senator Joseph McCarthy of Wisconsin held hearings on supposed Communist conspiracies that ruined innocent reputations and led to the blacklisting of suspected sympathizers in the government, Hollywood, and the media.
What is The Cuban Missile Crisis (1961)?
This was a stand-off between the United States and the Soviet Union over a build-up of missiles in Cuba. Eventually, the Soviets stopped their shipments and a nuclear war was averted.
What political figures were assassinated in the 1960's
- - President Kennedy (1963)
- - Senator Robert Kennedy (1968)
- - Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. (1968).
What was The Civil Rights Movement?
Protest marches were held across the nation to draw attention to the plight of black citizens. From 1964 to 1968, race riots exploded in more than 100 cities.
What was The Vietnam War (1964-73)?
This resulted in a military draft. There was heavy involvement of American personnel and money. There were also protest demonstrations, particularly on college campuses. At Kent State, several students died after being shot by National Guardsmen.
What Major legislation happened during the 1960's?
- - Civil Rights Act
- - Clean Air Act
- - Water Quality Act
- - creation of the Peace Corps
- - Medicare
- - War on Poverty
What is Popular Sovereignty?
The people establish government and give power to it; the government can function only with the consent of the people
What is Limited Government?
The Constitution specifies limits on government authority, and no official or entity is above the law.
What is Separation of Powers as guaranteed in the constitution?
Power is divided among three government branches: the legislative (Congress), the executive (President), and the judicial (federal courts).
What are Checks and Balances?
This is a system that enforces the separation of powers and ensures that each branch has the authority and ability to restrain the powers of the other two branches, thus preventing tyranny.
What is Judicial Review?
Judges in the federal courts ensure that no act of government is in violation of the Constitution. If an act is unconstitutional, the judicial branch has the power to nullify it.
What is Federalism?
This is the division of power between the central government and local governments, which limits the power of the federal government and allows states to deal with local problems.
What is Feudalism?
This is based on the rule of local lords who are loyal to the king and control the lives and production of those who work on their land.
What is a Classical republic?
This form is a representative democracy. Small groups of elected leaders represent the interests of the electorate.
What is a Absolute monarchy?
A king or queen has complete control of the military and government.
What is Authoritarianism?
An individual or group has unlimited authority. There is no system in place to restrain the power of the government.
What is a Dictatorship?
Those in power are not held responsible to the people.
What is Autocracy?
This is rule by one person (despot), not necessarily a monarch, who uses power tyrannically.
What is a Oligarchy?
A small, usually self-appointed elite rules a region.
What is a Liberal democracy?
This is a government based on the consent of the people that protects individual rights and freedoms from any intolerance by the majority.
What is Totalitarianism?
All facets of the citizens' lives are controlled by the government.
What ten amendments did Congress add tot he bill or rights when it was adopted?
- Freedom of speech, religion, peaceful assembly, petition of the government, and petition of the press
- The right to keep and bear arms
- No quartering of soldiers on private property without the consent of the owner
- Regulations on government search and seizure
- Provisions concerning prosecution
- The right to a speedy, public trial and the calling of witnesses
- The right to trial by jury
- Freedom from excessive bail or cruel punishment
- These rights are not necessarily the only rights
- Powers not prohibited by the Constitution are reserved to the states.
What four ways can an amendment be placed in the constitution?
1. An amendment is proposed by a two-thirds vote in each house of Congress and ratified by three-fourths of the state legislatures.
2. An amendment is proposed by a two-thirds vote in each house of Congress and ratified by three-fourths of the states in special conventions called for that purpose.
3. An amendment is proposed by a national convention that is called by Congress at the request of two-thirds of the state legislatures and ratified by three-fourths of the state legislatures.
4. An amendment is proposed by a national convention that is called by Congress at the request of two-thirds of the state legislatures and ratified by three-fourths of the states in special conventions called for that purpose.
What can the national level of government do?
- - Can coin money
- - Regulate interstate and foreign trade
- - Raise and maintain armed forces
- - Declare war
- - Govern United States territories and admit new states
- - Conduct foreign relations.
What can the Concurrent level of the federal government do?
- - levy and collect taxes
- - borrow money
- - establish courts
- - define crimes and set punishments
- - and claim private property for public use
What powers do the State have?
- - regulate trade and business within the state
- - establish public schools
- - pass license requirements for professionals
- - regulate alcoholic beverages
- - conduct elections
- - establish local governments
Marbury v. Madison (1803)
This ruling established judicial review as a power of the Supreme Court
Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857)
This decision upheld property rights over human rights in the case of a slave who had been transported to a free state by his master, but was still considered a slave.
Brown v. Board of Education (1954)
The Court ruled that segregation was a violation of the Equal Protection Clause and that the "separate but equal" practice in education was unconstitutional. This decision overturned the 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson ruling that permitted segregation if facilities were equal.
Miranda v. Arizona (1966)
This ruling made the reading of Miranda rights to those arrested for crimes the law. It ensured that confessions could not be illegally obtained and that citizen rights to fair trials and protection under the law would be upheld.
The Gettysburg Address
Made by Abraham Lincoln on November 19, 1863, it dedicated the battleground's cemetery.
The Fourteen Points
Made by Woodrow Wilson on January 18, 1918, this outlined Wilson's plans for peace and the League of Nations.
Address to Congress in 1941
Made by Franklin Roosevelt on December 8, 1941, it declared war on Japan and described the attack on Pearl Harbor as "a day which will live in infamy."
John F. Kennedy Inaugural Address
"Ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country."
John F Kennedy Berlin Address
"Ich bin ein Berliner," which expressed empathy for West Berliners in their conflict with the Soviet Union.
"I Have a Dream" and "I See the Promised Land"
Made by Martin Luther King, Jr. on August 28, 1963 and April 3, 1968, respectively, these speeches were hallmarks of the Civil Rights Movement.
Ronald Regan Brandenburg Gate speech
This speech was about the Berlin Wall and the end of the Cold War. It contained the famous line "Tear down this wall."
What are the purpose for primary elections?
For each political party to pick it's own candidate for election
What taxes can The Federal Government make?
- - Income tax
- - Corporate income tax
- - Excise - taxes tobacco, alcohol, cars, gas luxury items
- - Customs duties - federal import tax