Path 2: Cardiovascular System

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Path 2: Cardiovascular System
2013-07-26 13:56:52
pathology cardiovascular system

quiz questions for path 2: cardiovascular system
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  1. Common manifestations of blood diseases:
    Altered bleeding time
    Decreased resistance to infection
    • Altered bleeding time: platelet function
    • Lethargy: fatigue, low energy, apathy/RBC
    • Decreased resistance to infection: problem with WBC
  2. Anemias
    • Most common disorder affecting RBC's
    • A disease that reduces the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood
    • Signs/Symptoms: weakness, fatigue, lethargy, dizziness, or syncope (fainting) with a pallor to the skin and mucous membrane
  3. 3 Type of Anemias
    • Aplastic Anemia
    • Pernicious Anemia
    • Iron Deficiency Anemia
  4. Aplastic Anemia
    • destruction of stem cells in bone marrow
    • clinical manifestations: ANEMIA: decreased oxygen carrying capacity, GRANULOCYTOPENIA: low WBC count (granulocytes) decreased resistance to infection, THROMBOCYTPENIA: low platelet count (thrombocytes), poor clotthing, easy bruising
  5. Pernicioius Anemia
    • vitamin B12 deficiency
    • autoimmune disease of gastric mucosa
    • neruopathies and demyelination
  6. Iron Deficiency Anemia
    • most common cause of anemia worldwide
    • etiology: DIETARY DEFICIENCY: poor & under-fed, INCREASED DEMAND for IRON: pregnancy & infancy, MALABSORPTION of IRON: celiac disease & diarrhea, CHRONIC BLOOD LOSS: most important cause of iron deficiency (ulcers, cancer, hemorrhoids & profound menstrual flow)
  7. Sickle Cell Disease
    • Rare in Caucasians and Asians it affects 9% of African Americans
    • a permanent mutation in the shape of the hemoglobin (RBC) :: these altered cells are non-functional & can clump together forming blockages in circulation that create px & infection
    • Pathology: TACTOID: microscopic blood clot
  8. Infectious Mononucleosis
    • infection of the pharynx caused by Epstein Bar Virus
    • clinical course: fever, sore throat, leads to fatigue, usually resolves in 4-6 weeks
  9. Tumors of WBCs
    Lympomas: Tumors arising withing lymphatic tissue (9% of cancer deaths in adults/50% of cancer deaths in children under 15)
    • Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: tends to be worse, 2nd highest cancer in kids, lymphatic cancer
    • Hodgkin Lymphoma: less severe
  10. Leukemia
    • disease of the blood marked by proliferation (increase) of abnormal WBCs
    • 80% cancer patients are kids, 60% die w/in 1st year
    • abnormal bleeding, bone px, weight loss, fatigue
    • ACUTE: lymphoblasts: most responsive therapy in children / myeloglasts: adults
    • CHRONIC: lymphocytes: few symptoms, older adults / myeloid stem cells: may acclerate to myeloblasts (AML)
  11. Bleeding Disorders
    • increased fragility of the vessels
    • platelet deficiencies or dysfunction
    • derangement of coagulation
    • Hemophilia A: due to a sex linked, inherited deficiency in a clotting protein - Factor VIII
  12. Blood Vessels: Atherosclerosis
    • begins in early childhood
    • takes 20-30 yrs to develop the initial plaque
    • Risk Factors: Age, Sex - both men & women affected, Genetics - strong connection, but also environmental, Cigarette smoking - carbon monoxide corrosive, nicotine vasoconstriction, Diabetes Mellitus - high levels of sugar lead to more plaque formation, Hyperlipidemia - high fat/cholesterol diet, Low HDL cholesterol - bad when body doesn't need more cholesterol, Other - sedentary lifestyle, Type A (stressed people), oral contraceptives
    • Clinical Significance: Acute occlusion: blocked artery, Embolism: blood clot (moving), Aneurysm: dilated artery
  13. Hypertension (HTN): common cause of death in the U.S. The WHO says that anyone with a blood pressure of 140/90 has hypertension
    Define Essential HTN
    • results from an imbalance between cardiac output (CO) and total peripheral resistance (TRP)
    • Pathogenesis: Cardiac output: the amount of blood the heart pumps in a minute. Influenced by blood volume, heart rate, and contractility of the heart. Total peripheral resistance: the amount of resistance in the blood vessels. Determined at the level of arterioles, as well as nervous and hormonal influences that constrict or dilate vessles
    • HTN accelarates atherosclerosis
    • HTN is a risk factor for coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular accidents, congestive heart failure
  14. Malignant HTN
    • B/P>200/140 leading to a rapid vascular compromise and a narrowing of the arterioles
    • untreated leads to death in 1-2 years
  15. Raynaud Disease
    • paroxysmal pallor or cyanosis of the hands or feet and infrequently of the tips of the nose and ears
    • an exaggerated arterial vasospasm in the digits of the hands and feet in response to cold and emotion
    • skin color changes from white to blue to red
    • px and parasthesia are often present
  16. Lymphedema
    edema of the appendages due to impaired flow of lymph or interstitial space
  17. Aneurysms
    • localized abnormal dilation of an artery
    • develops where arterial wall is sufficiently damaged or weakened
    • causes: atherosclerosis: most common cause, weakening the vessel wall
  18. Varicose Veins
    • abnormally dilated, torturous veins
    • caused by prolonged, increased intraluminal pressure
    • posture: common cause - crossing legs/hyperextending knees
  19. Different types of varicose veins
    • Disabling sequelae
    • Esophageal varices
    • Hemorrhoids
  20. Heart: The Conducting System
    • Sinoatrial (SA) node: 1st to receive signal
    • Atrioventricular (AV) node: 2nd to receive signal
    • Common AV Bundle (of His): carries signal to septum
    • Right & Left Bundle Branches
    • Ventricular Conduction Cells (Purkinje Fibers): impulse from bottom to get all ventricles to contract together
  21. Principles of Cardiac Dysfunction
    *Possible Essay: List and Discuss 4 of 5
    • Failure of the pump itself: damaged muscles contract weakly or inadequately. Chambers my not empty or muscle may not relax
    • An obstruction of flow: lesion keeps valve from opening causing the chamber of the valve to be overworked
    • Regurgitant flow: a failed valve
    • Disorders of cardiac conduction: damaged conduction fibers lead to arrhythmias resulting in insufficient contractions
    • Disruption of the continuity of the circulatory system: holes permitting blood to escape
  22. Congestive heart failure
    • when the heart is injured it has a variety of ways to adapt for the short term
    • these adaptations lead to negative long term consequences, the end result is that the heart ejects and inadequate of blood.
    • pathogenesis: as the heart fails, it beats stronger, faster or both. Over time, the ventricular wall remodels becoming thicker.
    • 5 yrs life expectancy after diagnosed
  23. Ischemic Heart Disease
    is most often the result of ahtherosclerosis of the coronary arteries
  24. Angina Pectoris (ischemic heart disease)
    • intermittent chest px
    • caused by transient reversible myocardial ischemia
    • exertion or stress acts as triggers
  25. Myocardial Infarction (ischemic heart disease)
    strikes 1.5 million people a year, with 25% dying during the acute phase and another 10% within the first year after the event
  26. Rheumatic Fever
    multisystem disease that occurs as a complication of strepococcal pharyngitis