Rhetoric, Logic and Argumentation

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Rhetoric, Logic and Argumentation
2013-07-30 16:07:23
rhetoric argument AP Language fallacies

Glossary of Terms from Rhetoric Logic, and Argumentation: A Guide for Student Writers
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  1. abductive reasoning
    a precursor to deductive and inductive thought; the process of developing a hypothesis or a "hunch" based on a limited amount of information
  2. ad hominem
    a kind of red herring fallacy; suggests that an argument should be rejected on the basis of some irrelevant quality of the speaker
  3. ambiguous
    having more than one possible meaning or interpretation
  4. analogy
    compares two or more unlike objects on the basis of a shared quality
  5. argument by analogy
    • claims that since two items have a given attribute in common, they must also share a second, distinct point of similarity; an argument of the form:
    • 1. A is like B
    • 2. B ha property X.
    • 3. Therfore, A also has property X.
  6. weak analogy
    fallacy in which the differences between the objects of comparison in an analogy are so significant that they actually defeat the argument, and the comparison between the two items does not lead to the conclusion given
  7. argument
    in logic, a set of connected statements (known as "premises") that are meant to prove a particular conclusion
  8. argument from authority
    an argument that places undue emphasis on the opinion of the speaker or another presumed expert, committed when a speaker gives great weight to the opinion of an "expert" who is not really an authority on the subject at hand, or when the speaker treats the mere opinion of the expert as infalliable proof
  9. audience
    the person or people who receive the message (i.e., the readers, listeners, or observers)
  10. bandwagon effect
    the human tendency to make decisions on the basis of the majority opinion
  11. causation
    the act of producing an effect (example: "Falling down the stairs caused Jennifer to break her arm.")
  12. clustering illusion
    the human tendency to perceive patterns where no pattern exists
  13. cogency
    in inductive reasoning, an argument that is strongĀ and consists of premises that are all true
  14. cognitive biases
    hard-wired preferences for certain flawed reasoning patterns
  15. conclusion
    the main idea that an argumentis designed to prove; an argument's thesis
  16. confirmation bais
    the tendency to view information in a way that validates our existing opinions and belief
  17. correlation
    relationship between two factors (example: "The increase in temperature was correlated with a simultaneous increase in gas prices)
  18. cum hoc, ergo propter hoc
    occurs when a speaker assumes there is a causal relationship between two factors simply because they occur at the same time
  19. deductive reasoning
    a type of reasoning in which a conclusion is drawn as a logical consequence of the premises - it must be true if the premisesĀ are true; the conclusion will not add any new information to the argument, instead simply combining the principles stated in the premises
  20. emotional appeal
    a type of red herring fallacy in which the speaker elicits strong emotions to distract the audience from the facts of the argument
  21. ethos
    moral character
  22. appeal to ethos/ethical appeal
    an attempt to persuade by establishing the strength of the speaker's credibilitiy
  23. fallacy of interrogation
    a form of question that is logically flawed
  24. framing bias
    occurs when an individual is presented with two identical options that are described in different terms and responds differently depending on how the issue is presented, or "framed"
  25. gambler's fallacy
    a mistaken belief that the results of a random event, like a coin toss, will affect the probability of future outcomes
  26. guilt by association
    a type of ad hominem fallacy in which a speaker attempts to malign an opponent by associating him or her with a negative concept
  27. halo effect
    occurs when an individual is exposed to a person who has one positive quality and automatically attributes other desirable traits to the individual
  28. hasty generalization
    a fallacy in which the speaker draws a conclusion based on an unrepresentative sample; a type of weak analogy
  29. illusory superiority
    the tendency to erroneously view oneself as superior to others
  30. inductive reasoning
    a kind of reasoning in which conclusions reach beyond the scope of the information provided in the premises, speculating about possibilities outside the facts that the premises establish
  31. inference
    the process of drawing a particular conclusion from the available information
  32. loaded question
    a multi-part question tha requires the respondent to concede a point that has not already been proven or conceded; a fallacy of interrogation
  33. logic
    the formal study of reasoning
  34. logical fallacy
    an error in reasoning that makes a deductive argument invalid or an inductive argument weak
  35. informal fallacy
    a content-level error that makes an argument weak; informal fallacies usually apply to inductive arguments, but some can apply to deductive arguments as well
  36. formal fallacy
    an error in the structure of an argument that renders a deductive argument invalid
  37. logos
    reason, logic, words
  38. appeal to logos/logical appeal
    an attempt to persuade through rational analysis and persuasive langauge
  39. message
    the information the speaker wishes to convey to the audience (i.e., the argument, topic, or thesis)
  40. non causa pro causa
    the fallacy of mistaken causation
  41. non sequitur
    an umbrella term for all formal (deductive) fallacies - "it doesn't follow"
  42. objectve
    factual; independent of personal opinion or experience
  43. pathos
    emotion, especially pity or compassion
  44. appeal to pathos/pathetic appeal
    an attempt to persuade by eliciting an emotional response from the audience
  45. persuasion
    the act of convincing someone to accept a given opinion or to carry out a particular course of action
  46. post hoc, ergo propter hoc
    occurs when a speaker attempts to argue that one thing as caused anther simply because one event occurred after the other
  47. premise
    a declarative statement that is used to support or prove the point (conclusion) of the argument
  48. red herring
    a fallacy in which the speaker diverts attention from the true issues of a debate by emphasizing irrelevant information
  49. rhetoric
    the technique or study of communication and persuasion
  50. rhetorical appeals
    the three approaches to persuasive rhetoric - ethos, pathos, and logos; also referred to in the text as the "classical appeals" or "modes of persuasion"
  51. self-serving bias
    occurs when an individual claims an undue amount of credit or a positive situation or an inadequate amount of blame for a negative condition
  52. soundness
    in deductive logic, a valid argument whose premise are all true
  53. speaker
    the individual who is delivering the message, wheter in writing, speech, r another medium (i.e., the writer, orator, or presenter)
  54. stereotype
    a widely accepted, simplistic view of people who belong to a given group; this fallacy is type o hasty generalization, which is itself a sub-type of the weak analogy fallacy
  55. straw man
    occurs when a speaker avoids addressing an opponent's argument directly by instead creating and attacking a "dummy" argument that does not accurately represent the opponent's stance
  56. strength
    in inductive reasoning, a measure of the degree to which the premises of an argument suggest its conclusion
  57. subjective
    subject to personal opinion; proceeding from an individual's mind or experience
  58. syllogism
    a deductive argument composed of two premises (major and minor) and a conclusion
  59. thesis
    an idea that a speaker is putting forward for consideration or attempting to prove
  60. truth value
    a statement's relationship to the truth; must be either "true" or "false"
  61. validity
    in deductive logic, an argument whose premises necessitate its conclusion; an argument in which it is impossible to affirm each of the premises and deny the conclusion without a contadiction
  62. wishful thinking
    forming conclusions based o idealized imagined outcomes, rather than objectively examining the evidence at hand