Nutrition

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mcortes
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228289
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Nutrition
Updated:
2013-07-26 22:28:01
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  1. blood carries ______- soluble nutrients
    water
  2. lymps carries _______ - soluble nutrients
    fat
  3. what are the two hormones from pancreas?
    insulin and glucagon
  4. what is grehlin
    hunger hormones
  5. what is epinephrine
    stress hormones
  6. what elements will these breakdown into?
    CHO - 
    Protein -
    Fat -
    • CHO - monosaccharide
    • Protein - amino acids 
    • Fat - fatty acids and glycerol
  7. where are these stored?
    Fat - ?
    CHO - ?
    • Fat in fat cells
    • CHO as glycogen in liver and muscles 
    • and others are stores in the bone
  8. what are lipids?
    lipids are soluble in organic solvents but not in water
  9. How much lipids (fats) does NRC recommends? 
    DRI?
    trans fat (WHO)?
    • NRC = <30 % of energy from dietary fat
    • DRI = 20-35% of energy from dietary fat
    • trans fat = WHO: <1%
  10. What is the DRI recommendation for polyunsaturated fatty acids?
    Omega - 6
    Omega - 3
    • omega 6 = 5 - 10%
    • omega 3 = 0.6 - 1.2 %
  11. What are the 3 kinds of lipids?
    • triglycerides - 95% 
    • phospholipids - emulsifier
    • sterols
  12. which is the good and bad cholesterol?
    HDL or LDL
    • HDL is good so you need a lot 
    • while LDL is bad so you need a few

    the opposite will increase your risk for heart dieases
  13. what are the major sources of fat in our diet?
    • 1. Dairy products
    • 2. processed meat
    • 3. margarine
  14. Mediterranean Fat is _____ in total fat, _____ in complex CHO & fibre
    high in fat, high in CHO and fibre
  15. how is protein digested?
    in the stomach, gastric acid denatures protein and pepsin cleaves some peptide bonds
  16. what is the recommended intake (DRI) from proteins?
    • minimum = 10% total energy
    • maximum = 35% total energy
  17. What are the fat soluble vitamins?
    Vit. A, D, E, K
  18. Vitamin A - retinol
    what is the DRI
    Deficiency 
    toxicity
    • DRI = 700 - 900 ug/day
    • Deficiency = blindness, xerosis, impaired bone growth, easily decayed teeth, keratin lumps on skin
    • Toxicity =  stunted growth, muscle bone soreness, blurred vision, anorexia, skin disorders, liver damage, enlargement of sleen
  19. Vitamin D = Cholecalciferol 
    DRI =
    Deficiency = 
    Toxicity =
    • DRI = 15 ug/day
    • Deficiency = rickets, osteomalacia, increases with age
    • Toxicity = increased thirst & urination, depression, calcium deposits in heart, blood vessels, lung and kidneys
  20. Vitamin E = Tocopherol, alpha, delta, gamma, beta
    DRI =
    Deficiency = 
    Toxicity =
    • DRI =15 mg/day
    • Deficiency =  erythrocyte hemolysis, weakness, impaired reflexes
    • Toxicity = GI distress, blurred vision
    • increased risk of bleeding when combined with anticoagulant medication
  21. Vitamin K 
    DRI =
    Deficiency = 
    Toxicity =
    • DRI = 120 ug/day, women= 90ug/day
    • Deficiency = problem w/ fat absorption, easy bruising, hemorrhaging
    • Toxicity = jaundice, RBC break and releases pigment
  22. Vitamin C= Ascorbic acid
    DRI =
    Deficiency = 
    Toxicity =
    • DRI = 90 mg/day men; 75 mg/day women
    • +35 mg for smokers
    • Deficiency = scurvy
    • Toxicity = hemochromatosis, iron overload
  23. Thiamin 
    DRI = 
    Deficiency = 
    Toxicity =
    • DRI = men 1.2mg/day and women 1.1 mg/day
    • Deficiency = beri beri, wernicke korsakoff syndrome
    • Toxicity = none reported
  24. Riboflavin
    DRI = 
    Deficiency = 
    Toxicity =
    • DRI = men 1.3 mg day, women = 1.1 mg/day
    • Deficiency = ariboflavinosis
    • Toxicity = none reported
  25. Niacin
    DRI = 
    Deficiency = 
    Toxicity =
    • DRI = men 16mg/day, women 14mg/day
    • Deficiency = pellagra
    • Toxicity = red skin rash
    • tingling sensation in hands and feet
    • liver damage
  26. Folic Acid 
    DRI =
    Deficiency = 
    Toxicity =
    • DRI = 400ug/day
    • Deficiency = macrocyticanemia
    • Toxicity = resolves anemia
  27. Vitamin b12 
    DRI =
    Deficiency = 
    Toxicity =
    • DRI = 2.4 ug/day
    • Deficiency = pernicous macro anemia, neuromyscular dysfunction
    • none reported toxicity
  28. Vitamin b6
    DRI = 
    Deficiency =
    Toxicity =
    • DRI = 1.3mg/day
    • Deficiency = convulsion, microcytic anemia
    • Toxicity = carpal tunnel, nerve damage, sleep disorder

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