Chapter 5

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abuter
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Chapter 5
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2013-08-26 21:14:22
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Muscular System
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  1. a muscle that, on contraction, draws away from the middle
    abducter
  2. a muscle that draws a part toward the middle
    adductor
  3. the removal of a limb part, or other appendage
    amputation
  4. a muscle that counteracts the action of another muscle
    antagonist
  5. a wide, thin sheet-like tendon

    a fibrous sheet of connective tissue that serves to attach muscle to bone or to other tissues
    aponeurosis
  6. a lack of muscular coordination
    ataxia
  7. pert to a lack of normal tone or tension
    atonic
  8. a lack of nourishment; a wasting of muscular tissue that may be caused by lack of use
    atrophy
  9. a muscle with two heads or points of origin
    biceps
  10. pain in the arm
    brachialgia
  11. slowness of motion or movement
    bradykinesia
  12. pert to alternate contraction and relaxation of muscles
    clonic
  13. the process of drawing up and thickening of a muscle fiber
    contraction
  14. a cond in which a muscle shortens and renders the muscle resistant to the normal stretching
    contracture
  15. cramp of a finger or toe
    dactylospasm
  16. inflammation of the muscles and the skin; a connective tissue disease characterized by edema, dermatitis, and inflammation of the muscles
    dermatomyositis
  17. the partition of muscles and membranes that seperates the chest cavity and the abdominal cavitiy
    diaphragm
  18. treatment using high-frequency current to produce heat within a part of the body; used to increase blood flow and should not be used in acute stages of recovery from trauma
    diathermy
  19. a cond of impaired muscle time
    dystonia
  20. a protein found in muscle cells;

    when the gene that is responsible for this protien is defective and insufficient,  _______ is not produced, and muscle wasting occurs
    dystrophin
  21. faulty muscular development caused by lack of noursihment
    dystrophy
  22. type of diathermy:

    electromagnetic radiation is directed to specified tissues
    microwave
  23. type of diathermy:

    high-frequency electric current is directed to specified tissues
    short wave
  24. type of diathermy:

    high-frequency sound waves are directed to specified tissues
    ultrasound
  25. primary function:

    through contractility, extensibility, and elasticity, these muscles are responsible for the movement of the body
    skeletal muscle
  26. primary function:

    responsible for movement, help to maintain posture, and produce heat
    muscles
  27. primary function:

    produce relatively slow contraction with greater degree of extensibilty in the internal organs
    smooth muscle
  28. primary function:

    muscle of the heart, controlled by the autonomatic nervous system and specialized neuromuscular tissue
    cardiac muscle
  29. primary function: 

    a band of connective tissue serving for the attachment of muscles to bones
    tendons
  30. skeletal muscles:

    rotates and laterally flexes neck
    sternocleidomastoid
  31. skeletal muscles:

    draws head back and to the side, rotates scapula
    trapezius
  32. skeletal muscles:

    raises and rotates arm
    deltoid
  33. skeletal muscles:

    extends leg and assists flexion of the thigh
    rectus femoris
  34. skeletal muscles:

    flexes and rotates the thigh and leg
    sartorius
  35. skeletal muscles:

    dorsiflexes foot and increases the arch  in the beginning process of walking
    tibialis anterior
  36. skeletal muscles:

    flexes, adducts, and rotates arm
    pectoralis major
  37. skeletal muscles:

    flexes arm and forearm and supinates forearm
    biceps brachii
  38. skeletal muscles:

    compresses or flattens abdomen
    rectus abdominis
  39. skeletal muscles:

    plantar flexes foot
    soleus
  40. skeletal muscles:

    draws head back and to the side, rotates scapula
    trapezius
  41. skeletal muscles:

    extends forearm
    triceps
  42. skeletal muscles:

    adducts, extends, and rotates arm.  used during swimming
    latissimus dorsi
  43. skeletal muscles:

    extends and rotates thigh
    gluteus maximus
  44. skeletal muscles:

    flexes knee and rotates it outward
    biceps femoris
  45. skeletal muscles:

    plantar flexes foot and flexes knee
    gastrocnemius
  46. skeletal muscles:

    flexes and rotates leg, extends thigh
    semitendinosus
  47. a muscle that is primary in a given movment.  it's contraction produces the movement
    prime mover
  48. a muscle that acts with another muscle to produce movment
    synergist
  49. 6 types of excercise
    • active
    • assistive
    • isometric
    • passive
    • range of motion
    • relief of tension
  50. type of exercise:

    the patient contracts and relaxes his or her muscles
    active
  51. type of exercise:

    the patient contracts and relaxes his or her muscles with the assistance of a therapist
    assistive
  52. type of exercise:

    active muscular contraction performed against stable resistance, thereby not shortening the muscle length
    isometric
  53. type of exercise:

    exercise is performed by another individual without the assistance of  the patient
    passive
  54. type of exercise:

    movement of each joint throught its full ROM. 

    used to prevent loss of motility or to regain usage after an injury or fracture
    range of motion
  55. type of exercise:

    technique used to promote relaxation of the muscles and provide relief from tensions
    relief of tension
  56. performed activity of the muscles for imporvement of health or correction of deformity
    excercise
  57. thin layer of connective tissue covering, supporting, or connecting the muscles or inner organs of the body
    fascia
  58. inflammation of a fascia
    fascitis
  59. a state of tiredness or weariness occurring in a muscle as a result of repeated contractions
    fatigue
  60. a cond with widespread muscular pain and debilitating fatigue
    fibromyalgia
  61. inflammation of muscle and fibrous tissue
    fibromyitis
  62. lacking muscle tone; weak, soft, and flabby
    flaccid
  63. tx using scientific application of water

    types: hot tub, cold bath, whirlpool, vapor bath
    hydrotherapy
  64. point of attachment of a muscle to the part that it  moves
    insertion
  65. pert to within the muscle
    intramuscular
  66. pert to having equal measure
    isometric
  67. pert to having the same tone or tension
    isotonic
  68. a muscle that raises or elevates a part
    levator
  69. to knead, apply pressure and friction to external body tissues
    massage
  70. pain in the muscle
    myalgia
  71. inflammation of a muscle
    myitis
  72. an embryonic cell that develops into a cell of muscle fiber
    myoblast
  73. a tumor that contains muscle and fiber
    myofibroma
  74. an instrument used to record muscular contractions
    myograph
  75. muscular motion or activity
    myokinesis
  76. the study of muscles
    myology
  77. a tumor containing muscle tissue
    myoma
  78. softening of muscle tissue
    myomalacia
  79. weakness or slight paralysis of a muscle
    myoparesis
  80. muscle disease
    myopathy
  81. surgical repair of a muscle
     myoplasty
  82. suture of a muscle wound
    myorrhaphy
  83. a malignant tumor derived from muscle tissue
    myosarcoma
  84. a cond of hardning of muscle
     myosclerosis
  85. spasmodic contraction of a muscle
    myospasm
  86. an instrument used to cut a muscle
    myotome
  87. incision into a muscle
    myotomy
  88. pert to both nerves and tissue
    neuromuscular
  89. pert to a disease of both nerves and muscles
    neuromyopathic
  90. paralysis affecting many muscles
    polypalegia
  91. bodily posture or attitude;

    the manner in which a patient's body may be arranged for examination
    position
  92. an artifical device, organ, or part such as a hand, arm, leg, or tooth
    prosthesis
  93. a muscle that has four heads or points of origin
    quadriceps
  94. the process in which a muscle loosens and returns to a resting stage
    relaxation
  95. a tumor of striated muscle tissue
    rhabdomyoma
  96. a general term used to describe conditions characterized by inflammation, soreness, and stiffness of muscles, and pain joints
    rheumatism
  97. stiffness of skeletal muscles seen in death
    rigor mortis
  98. the process of moving a body part around a central axis
    rotation
  99. a term used to describe the muscles immediately surrounding the shoulder joint.

    they stabilize the shoulder joint while the entire arm is moved
    rotator cuff
  100. a plasma membrane surrounding each striated muscle fiber
    sarcolemma
  101. a cond of increased muscular tone causing stiff and awkward movments
    spasticity
  102. excessive, forcible stretching of a muscle or the musculotendinous unit
    strain
  103. pert to certain muscles that work together
    synergetic
  104. inflammation of a synovial membrane
    synovitis
  105. a band of fibrous connective tissue serving for the attachment of muscles to bones
    tendon
  106. surgical binding of a tendon
    tenodesis
  107. pain in a tendon
    tenodynia
  108. pert to tone, especially muscular tension
    tonic
  109. the process of being twisted
    torsion
  110. stiff neck caused by spasmodic contraction of the muscles of the neck; wryneck
    torticollis
  111. a muscle having three heads with a single insertion
    triceps
  112. pert to under the control of one's will
    voluntary
  113. types of positions:

    body is erect, head facing forward, arms by the sides with palms to the front;  used as the position of reference in designating the site or direction of a body structure
    anatomic
  114. types of positions:

    patient is on back with lower extremities flexed and rotated outward;  used in application of obstetric forceps, vaginal and rectal exam, and bimanual palpation
    dorsal recumbent
  115. types of positions:


    the head of the bed or examining table is raised about 18 in and the patient sits up with knees also elevated
    fowler's
  116. types of positions:

    patient on knees, thighs upright, head and upper part of chest resting on bed or exam table, arms crossed and above head;   used in sigmoidoscopy, displacement of prolapsed uterus, rectal exams, and flushing of intestinal canal
    knee-chest
  117. types of positions:


    patient is on back with lower extremities flexed and feet placed in stirrups;  used in vaginal examination; pap smear, vaginal operations, and diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the urethera and bladder
    lithotomy
  118. types of positions:


    patient sits upright or erect; used for patients with dyspnea
    orthopneic
  119. types of positions:


    patient lying face downward; used in exam of the back, injection, and massage
    prone
  120. types of positions:

    patient is lying on left side, right knee and thigh flexed well up above left leg that is slightly flexed, left arm behind the body, and right arm forward, flexed at elbow; used in exam of the rectum, sigmoidoscopy, enema, and intrauterine irrigation after labor
    sims's
  121. types of positions:

    patient lying flat on back with face upward and arms at the sides; used in examining the head, neck, chest, abdomen, and extremities and in assessing vital signs
    supine
  122. types of positions:

    patients body is supine on a bed or exam table that is tilted at about 45 degree angle with the head lower than the feet; used to displaced abdominal organs during surgery and in treating cardiovascular shock; also called the "shock position"
    trendelenburg
  123. drugs:

    used to treat painful muscle spasms that may result from strains, sprains, and musculo-skeletal trauma or diesase
    skeletal muscle relaxants
  124. drugs:

    used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis, characterized by progressive weakness of skeletal muscles and their rapid fatiguing
    skeletal muscle stimulants
  125. drugs:

    used to provide muscle relaxation
    neuromuscular blocking agents
  126. test:

    performed on serum that measures ALD enzyme present in skeletal and heart muscle

    it is helpful in the diagnosis of Duchenne's muscular dystrophy before symptoms appear
    aldolase (ALD) blood test
  127. test:

    a test performed on serum to determine levels of calcium
    calcium blood test
  128. test:

    blood test to determine the level of CPK
    it is increased in necrosis or atrophy of skeletal muscle, traumatic muscle injury, strenuous exercise, and progressive muscular dystrophy
    creatinine phosphokinase (CPK)
  129. test:

     used to measure electrical activity across muscle membranes by means of electrodes that are attached to a needle that is inserted into the muscle.
    electromyography  (EMG)
  130. test:

    used to determine te level of LDH enzyme
    lactic dehydrogenase  (LDH)
  131. test:

    operative procedure in which a small piece of muscle tissue is excised and then stained for microscopic examination
    muscle biopsy
  132. test:

    test to determine the level of SGOT enzyme, it is increased in skeletal muscle damage and muscular dystrophy.  also called aspartate aminotransferase (ALT)
    serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase  (SGOT)
  133. test:

    test to determine the level of SGPT enzyme, it is increased in skeletal muscle damage.  also called the alanine aminotransferade (ALT)
    serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase  (SGPT)
  134. _____ are the primary tissue in the body and are composed of slender cells called ______
    • muscles
    • fibers
  135. 3 types of muscles
    • skeletal
    • smooth
    • cardiac
  136. skeletal muscles are also called __ or __ muscles
    • voluntary
    • striated
  137. a muscle has 3 parts
    • body or main portion
    • origin
    • insertion
  138. smooth muscle is also called ___. ___. or ___ muscle
    • involuntary
    • viseral
    • unstriated
  139. types of smooth muscle include:
    internal organs of the digestive, resp., & urinary tract plus certain muscles of the eye and skin
  140. cardiac (heart) muscle is also called ___, ___, or ___.
    • myocardium
    • involuntary
    • striated
  141. cardiac muscle is controlled by the ____
    autonomic nervous system
  142. specialized neuromuscular tissue located within the right atrium
    cardiac muscle
  143. muscles help to maintain posture through a continual partial contraction of skeletal muscles
    tonicity
  144. 3 primary functions of muscles
    • movement
    • tonicity
    • produce heat thru chemical changes involved in muscular action
  145. 3 movement of muscle
    • locomotion
    • propulsion of substances thru tubes, ie..circulation, digestion
    • changes in the size of openings, ie.. contraction and relaxation of the iris
  146. occurs with the disease of muscles over a long period of time
    atrophy
  147. 5 benefits of exercise
    • may slow down progression of osteoporosis
    • decrease triglycerids increase "good" cholesterol
    • decrease blood pressure
    • may improve sugar levels in diabetics 
    • with proper diet can prevent obesity and maintain a health weight
  148. atrophy of fat tissue;
    also known as lipodystrohy;
    may occur at infection sites
    lipoatrophy
  149. widespred musculoskeletal pain and fatigue disorder
    fibromyalgia
  150. abbr:

    ACR
    american college of rheumatology
  151. abbr:

    ADP
    adenosine diphosphate
  152. abbr:

    AE
    above elbow
  153. abbr:

    AK
    above knee
  154. abbr:

    ALD
    aldolase
  155. abbr:

    AST
    aspartate aminotransferase
  156. abbr:

    BE
    below the elbow
  157. abbr:

    BK
    below the knee
  158. abbr:

    Ca
    calcium
  159. abbr:

    CPK
    creatinen phosphokinase
  160. abbr:

    CPM
    continuous passive motion
  161. abbr:

    DTRs
    deep tendon reflexes
  162. abbr:

    EMG
    electromyography
  163. abbr:

    FMS
    fibromyalgia syndrome
  164. abbr:

    FROM
    full range of motion
  165. abbr:

    Ht
    height
  166. abbr:

    IM
    intramuscular
  167. abbr:

    LDH
    lactic dehydrogenase
  168. abbr:

    LOM
    limitation or loss of motion
  169. abbr:

    MD
    muscular dystrophy
  170. abbr:

    MG
    myasthenia gravis
  171. abbr:

    MS
    musculoskeletal
  172. abbr:

    NSAIDs
    nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
  173. abbr:

    PM
    physical medicine
  174. abbr:

    PMR
    physicial medicine and rehabilitation
  175. abbr:

    ROM
    range of motion
  176. abbr:

    SGOT
    serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase
  177. abbr:

    SGPT
    serum glutamic pyruvic transminase
  178. abbr:

    sh
    shoulder
  179. abbr:

    TBW
    total body weight
  180. abbr:

    TJ
    triceps jerk
  181. abbr:

    wt
    weight
  182. chronic autoimmune neuromuscular disease characterized by varying degrees of weakness of the skeletal and voluntary muscles of the body
    myasthenia gravis
  183. refers to a group of genetic diseases characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of the skeletal or voluntary muscles which control movement
    muscular dystrophy
  184. suffix:

    -sis
    cond of
  185. suffix - 

    -ceps
    head
  186. suffix -

    -ity
    condition
  187. suffix - 

    -oid
    resemble
  188. suffix -

    -desis
    binding
  189. suffix -

    -dynia
    pain
  190. suffix - 

    -collis
    neck
  191. prefix

    ab-
    away from
  192. prefix

    ad-
    toward
  193. prefix

    ant-
    against
  194. prefix

    apo-
    seperation
  195. prefix

    a-
    lack of
  196. prefix

    bi-
    two
  197. prefix

    brady-
    slow
  198. prefix

    con-
    • with
    • together
  199. prefix

    dia-
    through
  200. prefix

    dys-
    difficult
  201. prefix

    hydro-
    water
  202. prefix

    in-
    into
  203. prefix

    intra-
    within
  204. prefix

    poly-
    many
  205. prefix

    quadri
    four
  206. prefix

    syn-
    together
  207. prefix

    tri-
    three
  208. root

    duct
    to lead
  209. root

    amputat
    to cut through
  210. root

    agon
    • agony
    • a contest
  211. root

    neur
    nerve
  212. root

    ton
    • tone
    • tension
  213. root

    clon
    turmoil
  214. root

    tract
    to draw
  215. root

    therm
    heat
  216. root

    troph
    a turning
  217. root

    fasc
    a band
  218. root

    my
    muscle
  219. root

    sert
    to gain
  220. root

    muscul
    muscle
  221. root

    levat
    lifter
  222. root

    gravis
    grave
  223. root

    sarc
    flesh
  224. root

    scler
    hardening
  225. root

    relaxat
    to loosen
  226. root

    lemma
    a rind
  227. root

    spastic
    convulsive
  228. root

    mast
    breast
  229. root

    erget
    work
  230. root

    synov
    joint fluid
  231. root

    tors
    twisted
  232. root

    volunt
    will
  233. comb form

    brach/i
    arm
  234. comb form

    dactyl/o
    • finger
    • toe
  235. comb form

    my/os
    muscle
  236. comb form

    fibr/o
    fiber
  237. comb form

    is/o
    equal
  238. comb form

    my/o
    muscle
  239. comb form

    neur/o
    nerves
  240. comb form

    prosth/e
    an addition
  241. comb form

    rhabd/o
    rod
  242. comb form

    stern/o
    sternum
  243. comb form

    cleid/o
    clavicale
  244. comb form

    ten/o
    tendon
  245. comb form

    tort/i
    twisted
  246. suffix

    -plegia
    • stroke
    • paralysis
  247. suffix

    -tome
    instrument to cut
  248. suffix

    -rrhaphy
    suture
  249. suffix

    -plasty
    surgical repair
  250. suffix

    -pathy
    disease
  251. suffix

    -paresis
    weakness
  252. suffix

    -malacia
    softening
  253. suffix

    -ary
    pert to
  254. suffix

    -or
    a doer
  255. suffix

    -ion
    process
  256. suffix

    -ist
    agent
  257. suffix

    -osis
    cond of
  258. suffix

    -taxia
    order
  259. suffix

    -ic
    pert to
  260. suffix

    -trophy
    • nourishment
    • development
  261. suffix

    -ceps
    head
  262. suffix

    -algia
    pain
  263. suffix

    -kinesia
    motion
  264. suffix

    -ure
    process
  265. suffix

    -itis
    inflammation
  266. suffix

    -phragm
    • a fence
    • partition
  267. suffix

    -y
    pert to
  268. suffix

    -ia
    condition
  269. suffix

    -n
    chemical
  270. suffix

    -therapy
    treatment
  271. suffix

    -ar
    pert to
  272. suffix

    -asthenia
    weakness
  273. suffix

    blast
    immature/germ cell
  274. suffix

    -oma
    tumor
  275. suffix

    -graph
    • to record
    • write
  276. suffix

    -logy
    study of

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