Med Surg

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Med Surg
2013-07-30 13:17:27
Musculoskeletal Exam

Chapter 46
Show Answers:

  1. A soft tissue injury that occurs when a muscle or tendon is excessively stretched?
  2. Excessive stretching of one or more ligaments that usually results from twisting movements during sports?
  3. Treatment for Sprain/Strain?
  4. fluid filled sacs that cushion tendons during movement to prevent friction between bone and tendon
  5. inflammation of the bursae
  6. What can cause bursitis?
    • sleeping wrong
    • gout
    • repetitive movement
    • arthritis
  7. Symptoms of bursitis?
    • achy pain
    • stiffness
    • burning pain
  8. Treatment of bursitis?
    • RICE
    • NSAIDS
  9. With any inflammatory disorder what are the nursing interventions?
    • Administer NSAIDS and or steroids 
    •  relieve pain and inflammation
  10. When assessing patients, what do they usually express their illness as ?
    In terms of function
  11. Fractures?
    break in the bones
  12. Sign and symptom of a fracture?
    severe pain
  13. Bone is splintered or shattered into numerous fragments, often as crushing injuries. 
    one of the most common fractures
  14. If there is a suspected fracture, what should you do?
    Splint it as it lies, do not try to move it
  15. True or False: A cast only offers full protection if it is completely dry?
  16. Cast care
    • Elevate casted limb for 24 - 48 hours 
    • apply ice to reduce swelling
    • neuro checks
  17. This type of traction does not promote bone alignment or healing but instead is used for relief of muscle spasms
    Bucks Traction
  18. Bucks traction is indicated for which type of patients?
    Patients with hip fractures
  19. True or false: When a patient is in traction, the weights are allowed to touch the floor, be removed or lifted?
    false: while a patient is in traction weights should never touch the floor nor be removed or lifted
  20. Open reduction with internal fixation?
    the bone ends are realigned by direct visualization through a surgical incision.
  21. Nursing Care for patient after a ORIF?
    • Pain
    • Impaired physical mobility
  22. External fixator
    • used when bone damage is severe
    • after fracture is reduced, the MD inserts pins into the bone. 
    • the pins are held in place by an external metal frame to prevent bone movement
  23. Nursing Care for patient with external fixator?
    • Risk for infection -- pin care
    • impaired physical mobility
    • disturbed body image
  24. Complications of fractures:
    • Neurovascular status
    • hemorrhage
    • infection
    • thromboembolytic 
    • acute compartment syndrome
    • fat embolism
  25. Pressure in one or more limb compartment increases, causing massive circulation impairment to the area
    Acute compartment syndrome
  26. What can cause acute compartment syndrome
    • cast
    • bulky dressing
  27. What is the sign of acute compartment syndrome.
    Severe pain not relieved by pain medsq
  28. Signs and symptoms of Fat embolism?
    • altered mental status
    • low arterial O2
    • tachycardia, tachypnea
    • fever
    • high blood pressure
    • Measleslike rash on upper body
  29. Nursing interventions for a patient with Fat emboli?
    • 1. Supplemental O2
    • 2. Patient in high fowlers
    • 3. maintain bedrest
  30. Important mineral to prevent blood loss?
  31. If calcium levels fall below normal what happens?
    Parathyroid gland, secretes parathyroid hormone to stimulate bone to release calcium into the blood
  32. Synthetic thyroid hormone that is used to treat osteoporosis, by decreasing bone loss?