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what are proteins?
compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen atoms arranged into AA linked by a chain, some AA contain sulfur atoms
what makes proteins different from one another?
the sequence of AA
true or false?
structure of AA defines its function
- form follows function
what determines the proteins 3 dimensional structure?
the chemistry of the side chain
What are AA
AA are building blocks of proteins, each contain an amino group NH2 and an acid group COOH, a hydrogen atom H and a side group all attached to a central carbon C atom.
define essential AA
AA that the body cannot produce at all or in sufficient quantities for the needs of the body
the removal of the amino group NH2 from an amino acid
what is the byproduct of deamination?
Ammonia (NH3) and keto acid aka carbon skeleton
the loss of AA 3 dimensional shape
what is the effect of denaturation in AA?
it leads to loss of AA function
What causes AA denaturation?
when proteins are exposed to heat, acid or agitated, such as cooking eggs or when the proteins are exposed to stomach acids
the transfer of an AA group from one AA acid to a keto acid, producing a new non-essential AA and a new keto Acid
what does transamination produce?
it synthesis new non-essential AA
What CoEnzyme does transamination needs to make it work?
it needs Vitamin B6 as a coenzyme
what kind of reaction occurs to form proteins and AA?
H2O is produces in formation of proteins or AA
what kind of bonds hold AA together?
what are the peptide bonds in AA?
- peptide=a single bond
- dipeptide= a double bond
- tripeptide= a triple bond
- polypeptide=many bonds
what are some function of protein in the body?
- some hormones
- provide structure ex. collagen
- fluid balance
- transport proteins
- blood clotting factors
- visual pigment
define protein turnover
the degradation and synthesis of proteins
how many grains of proteins are does the body use a day? what is the RDA and why the difference?
body uses about 300 grams of protein a day, the RDA is 40-60 grams and its less because the body cannot consume that much protein
define AA pool
the supply of AA from food proteins or in the cells, also those that circulate around the body and stand ready to be used for compounds or to be used as fuel
where are proteins synthesized?
in body cells
how are proteins synthesized?
DNA creates mRNA. mRNA attaches to Ribosomes. tRNA collects AA from cell fluid, AA bonds and are sequenced in, proteins are created, tRNA leaves to find more AA.
what is the role of Ribosomes?
to produce new proteins
what is the job of DNA?
to serve as a template for mRNA
what is the role of mRNA?
provide instructions for making new proteins
what is the role of tRNA?
to provide mRNA AA needed to produce new proteins
what are the four destinies of for AA?
- 1-new proteins, NEAAs & other substances
- be deaminated to become
- 2-burned as fuel
- 3-become glucose
- 4-become fat
what is the RDA for protein?
- .8 grams of protein per Kg of body weight.
what happens to excessive dietary protein?
it is used as fuel, becomes glucose or fat
what are some risk of too much protein intake?
- inadequate CHO intake
- stress on kidneys
- increase of heart disease and cancer
- increase of osteoporosis
- aggravates gout
which food contain protein?
- animal meats and animal products
- tofu, hummus, beans, rice, corn
what are complete proteins?
proteins that contain essential AA, such as animal products, soy and quinoa
what are incomplete proteins?
proteins low in 1 or more EAA, most plant based products
what is protein-calorie malnutrition?
a deficiency of protein, energy or both
what is Marasmus?
a form of protein-energy malnutrition which results from severe deprivation of impaired absorption of energy, protein, vitamins and minerals
what is kwashiorkor?
a from or protein-energy malnutrition from inadequate protein intake and infections
how are proteins digested in the stomach?
CHL which denatures protein structure and activate pepsinogen to pepsin which cuts proteins to smaller polypeptides
how are proteins digested in the small intestine?
proteins are digested via pancreatic and intestinal Proteases which cut polypeptides to tripeptides, dipeptides and AA.
Intestinal Tripeptidase and Dipeptidase cut peptides into AA
what are the different types of vegetarian diets?
- 1-Lacto-ovo= nothing from animals
- 2-vegan=dairy products but no meat
how are vegetarian diets healthy?
no animal cholesterol, lower calories
what are some benefits vegetarians tend to experience?
- better weight management
- lower blood pressure
- less heart disease
- less types of cancer
in what ways are vegetarian diets unhealthy?
using unhealthy oils such as Coconut oil