Proteins

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Author:
nando54321
ID:
228329
Filename:
Proteins
Updated:
2013-07-27 15:58:52
Tags:
Bio45
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Description:
Test 3
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  1. what are proteins?
    compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen atoms arranged into AA linked by a chain, some AA contain sulfur atoms
  2. what makes proteins different from one another?
    the sequence of AA
  3. true or false?
    structure of AA defines its function
    • True
    • form follows function
  4. what determines the proteins 3 dimensional structure?
    the chemistry of the side chain
  5. What are AA
    AA are building blocks of proteins, each contain an amino group NHand an acid group COOH, a hydrogen atom H and a side group all attached to a central carbon C atom.
  6. define essential AA
    AA that the body cannot produce at all or in sufficient quantities for the needs of the body
  7. define deanimation
    the removal of the amino group NHfrom an amino acid
  8. what is the byproduct of deamination?
    Ammonia (NH3) and keto acid aka carbon skeleton
  9. define denaturation
    the loss of AA 3 dimensional shape
  10. what is the effect of denaturation in AA?
    it leads to loss of AA function
  11. What causes AA denaturation?
    when proteins are exposed to heat, acid or agitated, such as cooking eggs or when the proteins are exposed to stomach acids
  12. define transamination
    the transfer of an AA group from one AA acid to a keto acid, producing a new non-essential AA and a new keto Acid
  13. what does transamination produce?
    it synthesis new non-essential AA
  14. What CoEnzyme does transamination needs to make it work?
    it needs Vitamin Bas a coenzyme
  15. what kind of reaction occurs to form proteins and AA?
    H2O is produces in formation of proteins or AA
  16. what kind of bonds hold AA together?
    peptide bonds
  17. what are the peptide bonds in AA?
    • peptide=a single bond
    • dipeptide= a double bond
    • tripeptide= a triple bond
    • polypeptide=many bonds
  18. what are some function of protein in the body?
    • enzymes
    • antibodies
    • some hormones
    • provide structure ex. collagen
    • fluid balance
    • transport proteins
    • fuel
    • blood clotting factors
    • visual pigment
  19. define protein turnover
    the degradation and synthesis of proteins
  20. how many grains of proteins are does the body use a day? what is the RDA and why the difference?
    body uses about 300 grams of protein a day, the RDA is 40-60 grams and its less because the body cannot consume that much protein
  21. define AA pool
    the supply of AA from food proteins or in the cells, also those that circulate around the body and stand ready to be used for compounds or to be used as fuel
  22. where are proteins synthesized?
    in body cells
  23. how are proteins synthesized?
    DNA creates mRNA. mRNA attaches to Ribosomes. tRNA collects AA from cell fluid, AA bonds and are sequenced in, proteins are created, tRNA leaves to find more AA.
  24. what is the role of Ribosomes?
    to produce new proteins
  25. what is the job of DNA?
    to serve as a template for mRNA
  26. what is the role of mRNA?
    provide instructions for making new proteins
  27. what is the role of tRNA?
    to provide mRNA AA needed to produce new proteins
  28. what are the four destinies of  for AA?
    • 1-new proteins, NEAAs & other substances
    • be deaminated  to become
    • 2-burned as fuel
    • 3-become glucose
    • 4-become fat
  29. what is the RDA for protein?
    • .8 grams of protein per Kg of body weight. 
    • Kg=lbs/2.2
  30. what happens to excessive dietary protein?
    it is used as fuel, becomes glucose or fat
  31. what are some risk of too much protein intake?
    • inadequate CHO intake
    • stress on kidneys
    • dehydration
    • increase of heart disease and cancer
    • increase of osteoporosis
    • aggravates gout
  32. which food contain protein?
    • animal meats and animal products
    • tofu, hummus, beans, rice, corn
  33. what are complete proteins?
    proteins that contain essential AA, such as animal products, soy and quinoa
  34. what are incomplete proteins?
    proteins low in 1 or more EAA, most plant based products
  35. what is protein-calorie malnutrition?
    a deficiency of protein, energy or both
  36. what is Marasmus?
    a form of protein-energy malnutrition which results from severe deprivation of impaired absorption of energy, protein, vitamins and minerals
  37. what is kwashiorkor?
    a from or protein-energy malnutrition from inadequate protein intake and infections
  38. how are proteins digested in the stomach?
    CHL which denatures protein structure and activate pepsinogen to pepsin which cuts proteins to smaller polypeptides
  39. how are proteins digested in the small intestine?
    proteins are digested via pancreatic and intestinal Proteases which cut polypeptides to tripeptides, dipeptides and AA.

    Intestinal Tripeptidase and Dipeptidase cut peptides into AA
  40. what are the different types of vegetarian diets?
    • 1-Lacto-ovo= nothing from animals
    • 2-vegan=dairy products but no meat
    • 3-other
  41. how are vegetarian diets healthy?
    no animal cholesterol, lower calories
  42. what are some benefits vegetarians tend to experience?
    • better weight management 
    • lower blood pressure
    • less heart disease
    • less types of cancer
  43. in what ways are vegetarian diets unhealthy?
    using unhealthy oils such as Coconut oil

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