A&P Organization & general plan of body

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A&P Organization & general plan of body
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2013-07-28 03:29:19
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fundamentals 2 A&P organization & general plan of the body
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  1. The simplest level of organization is the___
    chemical level
  2. Give 3 examples of organic chemicals
    1. Carbohydrates 2. protein 3.nucleic acids
  3. Give 3 examples of inorganic chemicals
    1.Water 2.oxygen 3.iron
  4. Most complex level of organization is ____
    organ system
  5. 3 examples of the organ system
    1.Respiratory 2.skeletal 3.Nervous
  6. Simplest living level of organization is the _____
    cellular level
  7. When cells with similar structure & function are grouped & work together, they form a ____
    tissue
  8. A group of tissues that is arranged in a particular way to accomplish specific functions is called an ____
    organ
  9. Function: Covers or lines surfaces
    Ex: The lining of the stomach & the epidermis of the skin
    Epithelial tissue
  10. Function: Supports, transports or stores materials
    EX: Bone, blood
    Connective tissue
  11. Function: Contracts & brings out movement 
    EX:The heart & skeletal muscle
    Muscle tissue
  12. Functions: Transmits impulses that regulates body functions
    EX: Spinal cord, brain
    Nerve tissue
  13. The structure of a tissue or cell or organ
    Also, the study of body structure, which includes size, shape composition, coloration
    Anatomy
  14. The functions of the tissue, cell or organ
    Also, study of how the body functions
    Physiology
  15. Describe 1 way the physiology of a bone (an organ) is related to it's anatomy
    Bones support or protect the body & are strong or hard
  16. All of the chemical reactions and physical changes that take place in the body
    Matablosim
  17. the amount of heat & energy produced by the body per unit if time is____
    metabolic rate
  18. A person who is in good health is____ & despite constant changes, the body remains stable(the same)
    homeostasis
  19. Changes that affect the body may take place where?
    Externally or internally
  20. To maintain homeostasis:
    Eating lunch?
    Food is digested or broken down into simple chemicals that the body can use
  21. To maintain homeostasis:
    Inhaling?
    Oxygen enters the blood to become available to cells
  22. To maintain homeostasis:
    Having a headache?
    Take aspirin (take a nap)
  23. To maintain homeostasis:
    Cutting your finger?
    Blood will clot to prevent blood loss
  24. To maintain homeostasis:
    Going outside on a cold day?
    Shivering will occur to produce heat
  25. Stimulus »Response by body Increases» Stimulus is Decreased» Response by the body Decreases »Stimulus occurs Again
    Negative feedback mechanism
  26. Body's response reverses stimulus
    Negative feedback mechanism
  27. Stimulus does not stop or reverse stimulus
    Positive feedback mechanism
  28. Above or higher
    • Superior 
    • EX: The heart is superior to the liver
  29. Below or lower
    • Inferior
    • EX: The liver is inferior to the lungs
  30. Toward the front
    • Anterior/Ventral
    • EX: The chest is on the anterior side of the body
  31. Toward the back
    • Posterior/Dorsal
    • EX: The lumbar area is posterior to the umbilical area
  32. Toward the midline
    • Medial
    • EX: The heart is medial to the lungs
  33. Away from the midline
    • Lateral 
    • EX: The shoulders are lateral to the neck
  34. Within or interior to
    • Internal/Deep
    • EX: The brain is internal to the skull
  35. Outside or exterior to
    • External
    • EX: The ribs are external to the lungs
  36. Toward the surface
    • Superficial
    • EX: The skin is the most superficial organ
  37. The main part
    • Central
    • EX: The brain is part of the central nervous system
  38. Extending from the main part
    • Peripheral
    • EX: Nerves in the arm are part of the peripheral nervous system
  39. Closer to the origin
    • Proximal
    • EX: The knee is proximal to the foot
  40. farther from the origin
    • Distal
    • EX:the palm is distal to the elbow
  41. pertaining to the wall of a cavity
    • Parietal
    • EX: The parietal pleura lines the chest cavity
  42. Pertaining to the organs within a cavity
    • Visceral
    • EX: The visceral pleura covers the lungs
  43. Lined with meninges & contains the brain
    Cranial cavity
  44. Lined with the parietal pleura, contains the heart & lungs, the inferior boundary is the diaphragm
    Thoracic cavity
  45. Contains the spinal cord, Lined with meninges
    Spinal cavity
  46. Contains the internal reproductive organs & urinary bladder
    Pelvic cavity
  47. Lined with the peritoneum, the superior boundary is the diaphragm, contains the liver & pancreas
    Abdominal cavity
  48. A plane that divides the body into right & left portions
    Sagittal section
  49. A plane perpendicular to the long axis of an organ
    Cross-section
  50. A plane that divides the body into front & back portions
    Frontal section
  51. A plane that divides the body into upper & lower portions
    Transverse section
  52. A plane along the long axis of an organ
    Longitudinal section
  53. Moves the skeleton & produces heat
    Muscular system
  54. Transports oxygen & nutrients to tissues
    Circulatory system
  55. Produces egg or sperm to continue the human species
    Reproductive system
  56. Supports the body & protects internal organs
    Skeletal system
  57. Removes waste products from the blood
    Urinary system
  58. Exchanges oxygen & carbon dioxide between the blood & air
    Respiratory system
  59. Regulates body functions by means of impulses
    Nervous system
  60. Regulates body functions by means of hormones
    Endocrine system
  61. Destroys pathogens that enter the body
    Lymphatic system
  62. Changes food to simpler chemicals to be absorbed
    Digestive system
  63. Is a barrier to pathogens & to chemicals
    Integumentary system
  64. Circulatory
    heart
  65. Urinary
    Kidneys
  66. Nervous
    Spinal cord
  67. Integumentary
    Skin
  68. Respiratory
    Trachea
  69. Muscular
    Muscles
  70. Skeletal
    Ribs
  71. Reproductive or endocrine
    Pancreas
  72. Lymphatic or Circulatory
    Spleen
  73. Endocrine
    Thyroid gland
  74. Reproductive or endocrine
    Testes
  75. Lungs
    Respiratory
  76. Esophagus
    Digestive
  77. Tendons
    Muscular
  78. Eyes
    Nervous
  79. Pituitary gland
    Endocrine
  80. Arteries
    Circulatory
  81. Sweat glands
    Integumentary
  82. Stomach
    Digestive system
  83. The serous membrane of the thoracic cavity
    Pleural membranes
  84. the smaller living unit of the body
    cell
  85. Lines the abdominal cavity
    peritoneum
  86. Covers the abdominal organs
    mesentery
  87. membranes that cover the organs of the centric nervous system
    meninges
  88. to cut or divide the body or a part
    section
  89. stability of the internal environment of the body
    homeostasis
  90. Chemicals that contain carbon
    Organic
  91. A compartment within the body
    Body cavity
  92. Study of how the body functions
    Physiology
  93. Chemicals that do not contain carbon
    Inorganic
  94. A group of organs that work together to perform specific functions
    organ system
  95. Detailed x-ray images are produced using this method
    CT Scanning
  96. Imaginary flat surface that separates the body
    Plane
  97. Study of disorders of functioning
    Pathophysiology
  98. A group of cells with similar structure & function
    tissue
  99. Membranes that surround the heart
    Pericardial
  100. Study of body structure
    Anatomy
  101. A group of tissues precisely arranged to accomplish specific functions
    organ
  102. Magnetic resonance imaging
    MRI
  103. Surgery involving the intestines requires an incision through the abdominal wall. Name the layers that must be cut to enter the abdominal cavity?
    1.The skin & subcutaneous tissue (part of the ineg system) 2.Muscles of the abdominal wall (provides for movement of the trunk) 3.Peritoneum (the lining of the abdominal cavity)
  104. meningitis is a serious disease caused by certain bacteria. Name the membranes affected & the organs they cover?
    • Membranes: Meninges  
    • Organs: Brain & spinal cord
  105. The kidneys have stopped functioning
    renal failure
  106. The heart has stopped beating
    cardiac arrest
  107. A blood vessel of the lung
    Pulmonary vein
  108. An unconscious state due to disease of liver
    Hepatic coma
  109. An erosion of the stomach lining
    Gastric ulcer
  110. Which quadrant?
    Stomach
    Upper left
  111. Which quadrant?
    Liver
    Upper right & left
  112. Which quadrant?
    Small intestine
    ALL FOUR
  113. Which quadrant?
    Large intestine
    ALL FOUR
  114. The diaphragm separates the___
    thoracic & abdominal cavities
  115. The body is cut in a mid-transverse section, & is now separated into two parts that may be called:
    Superior-inferior
  116. A cross-section of an artery would look like a:
    hollow circle
  117. The most inferior body cavity is the :
    Pelvic cavity
  118. The most superior body cavity is:
    Cranial cavity
  119. The most superior body system:
    Integumentary system
  120. A tissue found on the surface of an organ must be a:
    epithelial tissue
  121. A tissue that causes contractions of the stomach  to mix food with gastric juice must be a type of:
    muscle tissue
  122. The tissue that enables you to think & answer all of these questions is:
    Nerve tissue
  123. A tissue that supports body parts or transports materials within the body is a type of:
    Connective tissue
  124. Homeostasis means that the internal environment of the body is:
    Relatively stable in spite of constant changes
  125. The 2 organ systems that regulate body functions by means of impulses & hormones are the:
    Nervous & endocrine
  126. The 2 organ systems that are most responsible for protecting the body against pathogens are the:
    Integumentary & lymphatic
  127. The anatomy of an organ:
    Size, types of cells present & shape NOT FUNCTION
  128. The abdomen has how many quadrants & how many regions?
    • 4 quadrants &
    • 9 regions
  129. A feedback mechanism that contains its own brake is called:
    negative feedback mechanism
  130. A feedback mechanism that requires an external brake is called:
    positive feedback mechanism
  131. The disadvantage of a positive feedback mechanism is that it may:
    Slow down unless an external event keeps it going
  132. Parts of the upper limb?
    Palmar, brachial & antecubital
  133. Part of the lower limb?
    Popliteal, Patellar, femoral
  134. Part of the trunk of the body?
    Umbilical, lumbar, pectoral
  135. The metabolism of the body includes:
    breathing, any chemical reactions, any physical change
  136. A range of possible values, from low to high
    Normal values of metabolism
  137. The chemical level of organization of the body includes
    water, oxygen & protein
  138. Muscles are part of the____
    Organ level
  139. The organ level of organization includes:
    Arteries, liver & kidneys
  140. Blood is a ___
    Tissue
  141. Levels of organization in proper order of increasing complexity?
    Chemicals, cells, tissues, organs, organ system
  142. General Function:
    Muscle
    Specialized to function
  143. General Function:
    Connective tissue
    Specialized to support, transport or store minerals
  144. General Function:
    Epithelial
    Specialized to cover or line body surfaces
  145. General Function:
    Nerve Tissue
    Specialized to generate & transmit pulses
  146. State of good health
    External changes bring about specific responses by the body
    Internal changes have effects on it
    -The proper functioning of all the organ systems contribute it
    Homeostasis
  147. Lines the cranial cavity
    Meninges membrane
  148. Covers the lungs
    visceral pleura membrane
  149. Lines the thoracic cavity
    Parietal pleura membrane
  150. Lines abdominal cavity
    Peritoneum membrane
  151. A midsagittal section of the head would cut through:
    nose, mouth & brain
  152. Lateral to midline of head
    eyes & ears
  153. A midfrontal section of the body would separate the:
    midtransverse section
  154. -The human body contains many different types of these
    -Made up of inorganic & organic chemicals
    -Smallest living subunits of structure & function
    Cells
  155. A group of cells with similar structure & function is called:
    Tissues
  156. -Consists of the cranial & spinal cavities
    Dorsal cavity
  157. -Consists of the thoracic, abdominal & pelvic cavities
    Ventral cavity
  158. The serous membranes of the thoracic cavity
    Pleural membrane
  159. Separates the thoracic & abdominal cavities
    Diaphragm
  160. -It describes body functioning as a whole 
    -Energy & heat production are called metabolic rate
    -Physical changes are part of it 
    -External changes affect it
    Metabolism
  161. The muscular system is external to the _____
    skeletal sysytem
  162. The cervical area is medial to the ___
    deltoid areas
  163. -All aspects of metabolism contribute it
    -Changes inside the body may bring about further changes
    -Changes outside the body may bring about changes inside the body
    -Many aspects of body function have a range of normal values
    Homeostasis
  164. -The brachial area is to the upper limb as the femoral area is to the lower limb
    -The scapular area is both dorsal & posterior 
    -The temporal areas are anterior to the occipital area
    -A midsagittal section of the trunk would separate the 2 iliac areas
    Body part areas (body in anatomic positions)
  165. -If an organ is shaped like a tube, it probably transports something
    -The nervous system is one of the major regulatory systems of the body
    -The chemical level of organization includes minerals & organic chemicals
    Levels of organization of the body

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