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2013-07-28 13:15:24

Test 3
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  1. define metabolism
    the sum total of all chemical reaction in all living things.
  2. define anabolism
    A building reaction. Reactions in which small molecules are put together to build larger ones, Anabolic reactions require energy
  3. define catabolism
    A breakdown reaction. Reactions in which large molecules are broken down into smaller ones, catabolic reactions release energy
  4. define coupled reactions
    pairs of chemical reactions in which some of the energy released from the breakdown of one compound is used to create a bond in the formation of another compound
  5. what are some forms of energy?
    • heat
    • mechanical
    • electrical
    • chemical
  6. where does all energy come from?
    the sun
  7. what form of energy exist in food?
    chemical energy
  8. what is ATP
    ATP is a common high energy compound composed of a purine(adenine) a sugar(ribose) and 3 phosphate group
  9. why is ATP significant?
    because its the bodies energy currency
  10. What are the two Metabolic Systems?
    • 1-Glycolytic System
    • 2-Aerobic or Oxidative system
  11. Define Aerobic or oxidative system
    It requires oxygen to generate ATP
  12. Define the Glycolytic Metabolic System
    The metabolic breakdown of glucose to pyruvate. Glycolysis is Anaerobic, it does not require oxygen
  13. how is ATP regenerated in cells?
    • 1-Glycolytic System via                                             A-Glycolytic System
    •         B-Lactic Acid Pathway

    • 2-Aerobic or Oxidative System
    •         A-Pyruvate to Acetyl Co
    •         B-Kreb Cycle
    •         C-ETC
  14. what are the end products of metabolism?
    ATP and Water
  15. where does metabolism take place?
    body cells and liver
  16. how efficient is glycolysis in producing ATP?
    it is 50% efficiently, the rest of the 50% is radiated as heat
  17. what are the four basic units of energy derived from food?
    • 1-glucose
    • 2-glycerol
    • 3-fatty acids
    • 4-amino acids
  18. what is a pyruvate?
    a 3-carbon structure (compound)
  19. what is a acetyl CoA?
    a 2-carbon structure (compound) with an attached Coezyme
  20. true or false 
    Can pyruvate be used to make glucose?
    • true
    • Pyruvate can be used to make glucose
  21. true or false
    Can Acetyl CoA be used to make glucose?
    • False
    • Acetyl Coa cannot be used to make glucose
  22. true or false?

    the parts of proteins and fats that can be converted to pyruvate can provide glucose for the body?
    • true
    • parts of protein and fats can be converted to glucose
  23. true or false?
    can parted converted to Acetyl Coa be used to make glucose?
    • False
    • Parts that are converted to Acetyl Coa cannot be used to provide glucose, they can only provide fat
  24. true or false?
    all the energy yielding nutrients, protein, carbs and fat can be broken down to Acetyl CoA?
    • True
    • proteins, carbs and fats can be broken down to Acetyl CoA
  25. true or false?
    ETC is a pathway in energy metabolism?
  26. true or false?
    TCA cycle, tricarboxylic acid cycle, citric acid, citric acid cycle and the Kreb's cycle, all mean the same cycle?
    • True
    • all cycles do the same thing, just got different names attached
  27. define the TCA cycle
    a series of metabolic reactions that break down molecules of acetyl CoA to carbon dioxide and hydrogen atoms
  28. Define ETC
    the final pathway in energy metabolism that transports electrons from hydrogen to oxygen and captures the energy released in the bonds of ATP
  29. true or false?
    AA can be converted to Pyruvate, Acetyl CoA or can enter the TCA cycle directly?
    • true
    • AA are the only thing that can enter any energy pathway
  30. true or false?
    Glycerol can only be converted to Pyruvate?
    • true
    • glycerol can only be converted to Pyruvate
  31. true or false?
    glucose is split to make two 3 carbon compounds known as Pyruvate?
    • True
    • one glucose molecule produces two pyruvates
  32. true or false? 
    Glucose can be converted to Pyruvate and pyruvates can be converted back to glucose?
    • true
    • glucose and pyruvates can be converted back and forth dictated by the cells needs
  33. what are the steps of converting glucose to pyruvate?
    • 1-ATP is used to start glycolysis
    • 2-glucose is converted into two 3-carbon comp
    • 3-ATP is produced
    • 4-Coenzymes take H and electrons to ETC
    • 5-ATP is produced
    • 6-3-carbon compound convert to Pyruvates
  34. true or false?
    for quick and short energy demand such as a sprint the body converts glucose into pyruvate and pyruvate into Acetyl CoA without oxygen?
    • true
    • Pyruvate does not need oxygen for a quick short energy demand such as a sprint
  35. true or false? 
    For a slower energy needs such as jogging, glucose is converted to Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA in an Aerobic pathway?
    • True
    • oxygen is needed for slower energy demand
  36. true or false?
    under certain circumstances such as insufficient mitochondria or lack of oxygen the pyruvate accepts the hydrogen atom and its converted to Lactate
    • true
    • this can occur is the cells don't have enough oxygen or lack a sufficient number of mitochondria
  37. true or false?
    the step from pyruvate to Acetyl CoA is chemically irreversible?
    • true
    • Once the pyruvate is converted to Acetyl CoA the carbon group from pyruvate becomes carbon dioxide which is expelled out of the body through the lungs

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