Path 2: Respiratory System

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  1. The primary function of the respiratory system
    is the exchange of gases of O2 & CO2
  2. Manifestations of Respiratory Disease
    • Dyspnea: pxful, labored breathing or with an obstruction
    • Cyanosis: caused by increased amounts of reduced hemoglobin / dusky bluish discoloration
    • Chest Px (angina pectoris): parietal pleura sensitive to px secondary to movement
    • Cough: common symptom secondary to stimulation of cough reflex by entry of foreign matter into the larynx
    • Sputum Production: expectorated matter; saliva plus other substances. Important diagnostic tool.
    • Hemoptysis: coughing up blood
  3. Inflammatory Diseases
    • Infections Rhinitis: "the common cold"
    • Allergic Rhinitis: allergies/hayfever etc.
    • Nasal Polyps: may result from chronic infective or allergic inflammation. Made of masses of connective tissue that have been infiltrated by WBC's
  4. Sinuses are:
    • hollow areas lateral to, above, and behind the nose
    • provide resonance for the voice & lighten the head considerably
    • the mucous membranes of the sinuses are lined with cilia
  5. Infections of the Larynx (voice box)
    • Epiglottitis: serious condition caused by influenza that lead to swelling of the epiglottis & the obstruction of airflow. Very dangerous in children.
    • Croup: inspiratory stridor (wheezing), cough, hoarseness secondary to upper respiratory infection
    • Laryngitis: viral infection/allergies, screaming/overuse, inflammation of the larynx, pxful cough
  6. Neoplasms mean
    New Growth
  7. *Possible Essay*
    Why are infections of the upper respiratory track especially the larynx, so dangerous in small children?
    • smaller airway, more susceptible to choking
    • they cannot effectively communicate symptoms
  8. Etiology of Infections of the Bronchi & Bronchioles
    • influenza
    • adenovirus
    • measles
    • Bordetella pertussis
    • Haemophilus influenzae
    • Streptococcus pneumoniae
  9. Bronchial Obstruction
    common causes include tumors, mucous plugs and aspiration
  10. *Atelectasis
    collapse - air cannot reach distal airways & alveoli
  11. Pneumonia
    occurs as a primary disease but more often as a complication of other more serious illnesses
  12. Air space pneumonia
    • secondary to bacteria
    • infection of the alveoli & bronchioles
  13. Interstitial pneumonia
    • moves through the tissue
    • infection of the tissue between alveoli and the capillaries
  14. Pathology of Acute Air Space Pneumonia
    not exchange of gases O2 & CO2
  15. Primary tuberculosis
    • leading cause of death globally from a single infectious agent
    • estimated that 1/3 of world population infected
    • disease occurs in only 10% of caes of infection when hosts immunity decreases
    • primary infection is usually asymptomatic or may present with mild flu-like signs/symptoms
  16. Secondary tuerberculosis
    • remanifestation of primary TB
    • lesions are almost always in lung apices
    • worse than primary TB
    • almost always symptomatic; weight loss, low grade fever, and night sweats
    • prognosis good if treated
  17. Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
    • decreased expiratory flow rate and a decrease in elastic recoil (not getting air out)
    • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
  18. Chronic Bronchitis
    • chronic productive cough with no discernible cause for >3 months for 2 consecutive years
    • 90% of all cases due to smoking
    • increased size & number of mucous producing cells thicken the wall of the bronchi
    • increased product of mucous results in a significant narrowing of lumen
    • bronchial walls are chronically inflammed
    • often accompanied by emphysema/difficulty getting air out of lungs
  19. Emphysema
    • enlargement of air spaces distal to terminal bronchioles w/destruction of lung parenchyma.
    • lose elastic recoil which affect expiration
    • associated with chronic bronchitis
    • diffculity getting air out of lungs
    • loss of alveolar sufrace area and capillary bed leads to hypoxia
    • cigarette smoking is the major cause - destroys the elastic nature of the lungs
  20. Emphysema Pathology
    destruction of the lung parenchyma (elastic tissue)
  21. Emphysema Clinical Features
    • presents around age 60
    • 1/3  of lung tissue must be destroyed before symptoms appear
    • dyspnea, weight loss, use of accessory muscles - prolonged expiratory effort
    • barrel chest, right heart failure, and may have recurrent infections
  22. Asthma
    episodic, reversible bronchospasm accompanied by broncial inflammation in response to a variety of stimuli
  23. Extrinsic asthma
    hypersensitivity reaction (perceived allergen)
  24. Intrinsic asthma
    stimuli that have little affect in "normal" individuals
  25. pulmonary hamartoma
  26. Pneumothorax
    presence of air in the plural cavity
  27. Spontaneous pneumothorax
    complication of any form of respiratory disease
  28. Tension pneumothorax
    • a ball valve type of hole
    • air passes into the pleural cavity but cannot escape
    • as the cavity fills with the air the increasing pressure causes a shift and ultimately a fatal compression of the heart and lungs
  29. Hemothorax
    blood fills the pleural cavity (space around the lungs)
  30. Pleural effusion
    • accumulation of excess fluid in the pleural cavity
    • S/S include dyspnea, cyanosis, chest px, cough, sputum production w/or w/out blood
  31. Pleurisy
    Inflammation of the pleura with exudation into the pleural cavity and onto the pleural surface
  32. Cystic Fibrosis
    • common
    • often fatal disease of childhood and young adult life
    • disorder that affects the fluid secretions in exocrine glands and epithelial linings of the respiratory, gastrointestinal tract, and the reproductive tracts
    • is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder (2x faulty gene needed)
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Path 2: Respiratory System
2013-07-28 08:06:26
pathology respiratory system

Pathology Respiratory System Quiz
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