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how is an empyema diagnosed?
pH < 7.2 on pleural tap
what are the paraneoplastic syndromes associated with small cell lung cancer?
- ectopic ACTH
what are the paraneoplastic syndromes associated with squamous cell lung cancer?
- PTHrP - hypercalcaemia
- HPOA (pain in wrist)
what are the SE of beta 2 agonist
what are the SE of inhaled steroids
- oral candidiasis
- hoarse voice (dysphonia)
what are the SE of methylxanthines?
- narrow TI
- gastric irritation
- Central N+V
- inc cAMP so seizure and arrhythmia
what are the SE of LT antagonists?
what are the SE of cromolyns
- few and weak
- transient bronchospasm
who are cromolyns used in and why? give e.g.
- sodium cromoglycate
- nedrocromil sodium
- 1. prophylaxis for exercise induced asthma
- 2. children as no risk of growth suppression
how are methylxanthines administered?
how are LT antagonists administered?
what are the indications for LTOT?
- 1. PaO2 < 7.3
- 2. PaO2 < 8.0 and cor pulmonale
- 3. FEV1 < 1.5L
- 4. patient stable
what are the drug causes of pulm fibrosis?
- nitrofurantoin (for UTI, E.coli)
which part of the lung is commonly affected in idiopathic pulm fibrosis?
what are the causes of upper zone shadowing on CXR?
- A SEA
- Ank spond
what are the causes of lower zone shadowing on CXR?
- idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
- Drugs: AMBN
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