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maximum life span
genetic limit to length of life for a person free of external risk factors
- -lens yellows.
- -cloudy areas in the lens, resulting in foggy vision and even blindness
- -increases 10fold from mid to late adulthood
- light sensitve cells in the macula or center region of retina break down. central vision blurs and gradually is lost.
- -leading cause of blindness among older adults
- -as immune system ages, t cells that attack antigens become less effective.
- -the immune system is more likely to malfunction by turning agaisnt normal body tissues.
- -less competent immune system causes higher risk for illness in elderly.
- -breathing ceases for 10 secs or longer, resulting in many brief awakenings.
- -men up until 70 or 80 experience more sleep problems than woman bcuz enlargement of the prostate gland
compression of morbitity
- as life extends, we want the avg period of diminished mobility before death to decrease. a public health goal call compression of morbitity.
- -rise over past decades in industrialized nations.
-genetically or biologically influenced declines that affect all members of our species and take place even in the context of overall good health
- declines due to hereditary defects and negative environmental influences.
- -causes frailty more so than primary aging does.
- -weakened functioning of organs and body systems which profoundly interfere with everyday competence.
- -elders are highly vulnerable to infection, hot/cold weather, injury.
- most common type, involves deteriorating in certain joints.
- -age related disease, wear and tear makes a difference.
- -almost all older adults show some osteoarthritis.
- -arthritis-inflamed, painful and stiff joints and muscles. more common in late adulthood
- -involves whole body.
- -autoimmune response leads to inflammation of connective tissue resulting in stiffness, inflammation, and aching.
- -tissue in cartilige tends to grow damaging surrounding ligaments, muscles and bones.
- -deformed joints and loss of mobility.
-more common among women. increases with age.
- -refers to a set of disorders occurring almost only in old age. many aspects of though and behavior are so impaired that everyday activities are disrupted.
- -both sexes equally.
- -rises sharply after age 80.
- -blacks higher rates. bcuz of risk factors, not due to race.
- -about a dozen types of dementia have been identified.
- -comes in 2 varieties; alzheimers and cerebrovascular dementia.
- -damage occurs mostly in cerebral cortex.
- -most common form of dementia.
- -structural and chemical brain deterioration is associated with gradual loss of many aspects of thought and behavior.
- -accounts for 60% of all dementia cases.
- -in 2030, when baby boomers have reached late adulthood, the number of americans with alzheimers is expected to increase more than 50%
- -one of two major sturctural changes in cerebral cortex especially in memory and reasoning areas
- -bundles of twisted threads that are the product of collapsed neural structures and contain abnormal forms of protein called Tau.
- -outside neurons with dense deposits of a deteriorated protein called amyloid. surrounded by clumps of dead nerve glial cells develop.
- one of two major sturctural changes in cerebral cortex especially in memory and reasoning areas
neurofribrillay tangles and amyloid plaques
-present in normal mid aged people and increase with age, but an overabundance of people with alzheimers.
familial and sporadic alzheimers
- -familial runs in families. familial has an early onset around 65 and progresses more rapidly.
- -sporadic not related to family history, later onset.
- -series of strokes leaves areas of dead brain cells producing degeneration of mental ability.
- -more men than woman cuz of cardiovascular disease.
- -combination of gentics and environmental forces
a homelike housing arrangemetn for seniors who require more care than can be provided at home but less than is needed for a nursing home.
selective optimization with compensation
- -elders who appear good in this area narrow their goals, as they select personally valued activities to optimize (or maximize) returns from their diminishing energy.
- -they find new ways to compensate for losses.
- -Ex. enjoyed running but may need to make changes when they get old so they could walk instead.
- -memory w/o conscious awareness. ex, t_ _ k. you would fill in t a s k becuase you had just heard that word. it was automatic.
- -age differences are smaller in implicit memory rather than explicit/deliberate.
- -implicit is still good in adulthood, deliberate goes down tho largely due to less use of working memory.
associative memory deficit
- difficulty creating or retrieving links btwn pieces of information. ex. 2 items, ruth had trouble remembering the name of the movie with child actor or where she had seen the movie.
- -word paris are harder in old age. recognition is just as good tho.
-remembering info about the source of the information gets lost in old age. ex. political advertising.
long term recall. elders will say they are good at this but research does not support this.
- -refers to remembering to engage in planned actions in the future. ex, remembering a dinner date.
- -retrospective is in the past.
- -older adults do better on event based prospective than time based
emotional maturity, breadth and depth knowledge, enriching lives, expertise in the conduct and meaning of life.
actual competence and performance
avg life expectancy
-20th century gains due to declines in infant mortality and declines in death rates among adults. confirms biological aging can be modified.
cog development in late adulthood
- -greater variation
- -brain in plastic and compensatory
few yrs before death of marked acceleration of decline. 4-5 yrs.