FUND 2 A&P CHEMISTRY

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Steph242
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228447
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FUND 2 A&P CHEMISTRY
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2013-07-28 22:51:09
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Fund 2 A&P Chemistry
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  1. A substance made of only one type of atom
    Element
  2. Fe
    Iron
  3. Ca
    Calcium
  4. O
    Oxygen
  5. C
    Carbon
  6. H
    Hydrogen
  7. K
    Potassium
  8. Na
    Sodium
  9. I
    Iodine
  10. P
    Phosphorus
  11. Mg
    Magnesium
  12. N
    Nitrogen
  13. S
    Sulfer
  14. CI
    Chlorine
  15. Cu
    Copper
  16. Zn
    Zine
  17. Co
    Cobalt
  18. Mn
    Manganese
  19. F
    Fluorine
  20. The subunits of atoms are _______?
    Protons, neutrons & electrons
  21. The atomic subunit that has a negative charge is the _____ & the subunit that has a positive charge is the_______
    Electron & proton
  22. The subunit that has no charge is the ____
    Neutron
  23. Which subunits are found in the atomic nucleus?
    Protons & electrons
  24. Which subunits gives an atom its bonding capabilities?
    Electrons
  25. An atom that has lost or gained electrons & now has a positive or negative charge is called an ___?
    Ion
  26. The bonding of two or more atoms results in the formation of a ____?
    Molecule
  27. The bond formed when 1 atom loses electrons that are gained by other atoms is called an_____?
    Ionic Bond
  28. The bond formed when 2 or more atoms share electrons is called a ____
    Covalent bond
  29. Name a molecule that exists naturally as a gas?
    Oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen
  30. Name a molecule that exists naturally as a liquid
    Water
  31. Name a molecule that exists naturally as a solid
    Sodium chloride, calcium chloride
  32. The type of bond that may be weakened in a aqueous (water) solution is the _____?
    Ionic bond
  33. The atoms of organic molecules such as carbohydrates & proteins are bonded by ______
    Covalent bonds
  34. The special covalent bonds found only in proteins such as insulin, to help maintain their 3 dimensional shape are called _______
    Disulfide bonds
  35. The weak bonds that maintain the 3 dimensional shape of proteins & nucleic acids are called
    Hydrogen bonds
  36. A reaction in which smaller molecules bond to form a new, larger molecule called a _____?
    Synthesis reaction
  37. A reaction in which bonds are broken & a large molecule is changed to smaller ones is called a ____?
    Decomposition reaction
  38. The most abundant compound in the body is ___?
    Water
  39. Water is a solvent, which means that many substances ____ in water
    dissolve
  40. State a specific way in which water as a solvent is important to the body.
    Transport of nutrients in blood, excretion of wastes in urine, senses of taste & smell
  41. Water is a lubricant, which means that it prevents ____ between surfaces
    Friction
  42. State a specific way in which water as a lubricant is important to the body.
    Mucous in digestive tract, synovial fluid in joints.
  43. Water absorbs a great deal of heat as it evaporates. State why this is important to the body.
    Excess body heat may be lost in the process of sweating.
  44. Water found in blood vessels is called (NOT BLOOD) _____?
    Plasma
  45. Water found within cells is called _____?
    Intracellular fluid
  46. Water found in lymph vessels is called____?
    Lymph fluid
  47. Water found between cells is called_____?
    tissue fluid
  48. In what form is oxygen found in the atmosphere?
    As a gas
  49. State the chemical formula of oxygen?
    O2
  50. Within the body, oxygen is essential for the process called ____, which produces _______ for cellular processes that require energy.
    Cell respiration & ATP (energy)
  51. Carbon dioxide is produced in the body as a waste product of the process of _____?
    Cell respiration
  52. State the chemical formula of carbon dioxide?
    CO2
  53. If excess CO2 is present in body fluids, these fluids will become too_____?
    Acidic
  54. Complete the summary reaction of cell respiration by naming the 4 products of the reaction:
    • C6H12O6 (glucose) +O2 →
    • CO2 + H2O + ATP + Heat
  55. State what happens to each of the two molecular products.
    CO2 is exhaled, H2O becomes part of intracellular water.
  56. State the purpose of each of the 2 energy forms produced.
    ATP provides energy for cellular activities, heat contributes to a constant body temperature.
  57. Part of hemogoblin in red blood cells
    Iron
  58. Part of some proteins such as insulins
    Sulfur
  59. Provides strength in bones & teeth
    Necessary for blood clotting
    Necessary for muscle contraction
    Calcium
  60. Part of hormone thyroxine
    Iodine
  61. Provides strength in bones & teeth
    Part of DNA & RNA
    Phosphorus
  62. Necessary for nerve impulse transmission
    Necessary for muscle transaction
    Sodium & Potassium
  63. State the range of the PH scale
    0 to 14
  64. In this scale, the number that indicates a neutral pH is ___?

    "0 to 14"
    7
  65. Neutral means that there are as many ___ ions as there are _____ ions in the solution.
    H+        OH-
  66. The portion of the pH scale from 0 to 6.99 represents solutions that are_____?
    Acidic
  67. The portion of the pH scale from 7.01 to 14 represents solutions that are ____?
    alkaline (basic)
  68. STate the normal pH range of blood:
    pH 7.35-7.45
  69. This pH range means that blood is slightly
    Alkaline (acidic or alkaline)
  70. Chemicals in body fluids that help prevent drastic pH changes are called____?
    buffers
  71. The bicarbonate buffer system may buffer either strong acids or strong bases in body fluids.
    a) H2CO3 (name:_______) may buffer a strong ________.
    Carbonic acid       base
  72. NaHCO3 (name:______) may buffer a strong _______
    Sodium bicarbonate        acid
  73. When a strong acid such as HCI is buffered by the bicarbonate buffer system, the following reaction takes place:

    HCI+NaHCO3→NaCI+H2CO3

    a)Name the products of this reaction:______and________
    b) HCI is a strong acid, which means it would have a _______ effect on the pH of body fluids.
    c) One of the products of this reaction is the salt_____, which has what effect on pH?_______(great, slight, or no effect)
    d) The other product is the weak acid _______, which has what effect on pH?______(great, slight or no effect)
    • a)Sodium chloride and carbonic acid
    • b)great
    • c)NaCI, no effect
    • d) H2CO3, Slight
  74. A 6-carbon monosaccharide or hexose sugar
    Glucose
  75. A 5-carbon monosaccharide
    Pentose sugar
  76. A disaccharide
    Sucrose
  77. A polysaccharide made by plans for energy storage
    Starch
  78. A polysaccharide for energy storage in animal cells
    Glycogen
  79. A polysaccharide that is part of plant cell walls
    Cellulose
  80. Made of one glycerol and one, 2 or 3 fatty acids
    True fats
  81. A diglyceride that includes a phosphate group
    Phospholipid
  82. A steroid
    Cholesterol
  83. The molecular subunits of proteins
    Amino acids
  84. Made of many amino acids
    Proteins
  85. FUNCTION:
    The primary energy source for cells
    Glucose
  86. FUNCTION:
    Part of DNA & RNA
    Pentose sugars
  87. FUNCTION:
    A sugar that is digested to monosaccharides to produce energy
    Sucrose
  88. FUNCTION:
    A polysaccharide that is digested to glucose & used for energy production
    Starch
  89. FUNCTION:

    The storage form for glucose in the liver & muscles
    Glycogen
  90. FUNCTION:
    A polysaccharide that promotes peristalsis in the colon
    Also called fiber
    Cellulose
  91. FUNCTION:
    An energy storage molecule in subcutaneous tissue
    True fats
  92. FUNCTION:
    A diglyceride that is part of cell membranes
    Phospholipid
  93. FUNCTION:
    Changed to vitamin D in the skin on exposure to sunlight
    Used to synthesize the steroid hormones
    Cholesterol
  94. FUNCTION:
    Bonded by peptide bonds to form proteins
    Amino acids
  95. FUNCTION:
    These include enzymes & antibodies
    These include hemogoblin & insulin
    Proteins
  96. H
      NH2   C     COOH
               R
    a) Name the elements in the molecule:
    b) Name this molecule: 
    c) Name the type of bond that holds its element together:
    • a) Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen & nitrogen
    • b) Amino acid 
    • c) Covalent
  97. look @ pic before
    a) Name the larger molecules that are made of many of this type of smaller molecule. _____
    b)State 3 functions of these larger molecules in the body._______   _______  _________
    • a) Proteins
    • b) 1.Enzymes to catalyze reactions /Antibodies for defense against pathogens
    • 2.Hemogoblin to carry oxygen/ muscle contraction/ some hormones
    • 3. Structure of cells & tissues
  98. Fiber to provide exercise for the colon; promotes peristalsis
    Cellulose
  99. Enzymes are proteins that increase the rate of reactions without the need for additional energy. Another way to say this is that enzymes are ______in the body.
    catalysts
  100. An increase in body temperature, such as fever, may inactivate enzymes because the higher temperature changes the______ of the enzymes.
    shape
  101. A state of acidosis may inactivate enzymes because excess_______ ions block______of these enzymes
    H+      active site
  102. Both DNA & RNA are made of subunits called nucleotides. A nucleotide consists of 3 smaller molecules:
    pentose sugar, Phosphate group, nitrogenous base
  103. A double strand of nucleotides 
    Contains the nitrogenous bases A, T, C & G
    DNA
  104. A single strand of nucleotides 
    Contains the nitrogenous bases A,U,C & G
    RNA
  105. A single nucleotide with 3 phosphate groups 
    Made from ADP & phosphate
    ATP
  106. DNA Double helix 

    T is always paired with __?
    A
  107. DNA Double helix 

    C is always paired with_?
    G
  108. Makes up the chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell
    The genetic code or hereditary characteristics
    DNA
  109. Directly involved in protein synthesis
    RNA
  110. Formed when energy is released in cell respiration
    Provides energy for cellular reactions
    ATP
  111. Allows ions to take part in other chemical reactions
    Dissociation
  112. Made of only 1 type of atom
    Element
  113. Water within cells
    ICF
  114. Include sugars, starch, & glycogen
    Carbohydrates
  115. The value that indicates acidity or alkalinity
    pH
  116. Decreases the concentration of H+ ions
    Base
  117. Speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction
    Catalyst
  118. Inorganic chemicals needed by the body in small amounts
    Trace elements
  119. Made of amino acids
    Protein
  120. The subunits of proteins
    Amino acids
  121. Minimizes changes in pH
    Buffer system
  122. Energy production within cells
    Cell respiration
  123. Bond that holds ions together
    Ionic bond
  124. Will catalyze only 1 type of reaction
    Enzyme
  125. DNA & RNA are ___?
    Nucleic acids
  126. Smallest part of an element
    atom
  127. Sharing of electrons between atoms forms a ____?
    covalent bond
  128. Increases the concentration oh H+ ions
    Acid
  129. Include true fats & steroids
    Lipids
  130. 35% of the body's total water
    ECF
  131. Mr B. has severe emphysema & cannot exhale efficiently. As CO2 accumulates, the pH of his body fluids will ____ and he will be in state called_____?

    In this state, Mr. B's blood might be ___?
    Decrease     acidosis        7.32
  132. Mrs. T. is 72 years old & has osteoporosis, a condition in which the bones have become fragile & tend to fracture more easily. WHich mineral does she not have enough have?
    Calcium
  133. Following a car accident, Mr. M is hospitalized & is receiving an intravenous solution of dextrose (glucose) in water. The direct purpose of this solution is to____?
    Provide an energy source for cell respiration
  134. Ms. C is 16 years old and her doctor has advised her to eat foods rich in iron. The most probable reason for this recommendation is to____.
    Provide for adequate hemogoblin synthesis to prevent anemia
  135. The direct source of energy for cells is usually
    Glucose
  136. An atom has a charge after losing or gaining electrons is called:
    an Ion
  137. The smallest part of an element is:
    An atom
  138. The normal pH range of blood is
    7.35-7.45
  139. Formula for ions of sodium & chlorine?
    Na+, CI-
  140. Formula shows a molecule with covalent bonds?
    H2O
  141. 2 compounds that are important for energy storage in the body?
    Glycogen & true fats
  142. Intracellular fluid is the name for water found in
    cells
  143. Enzymes are molecules that catalyze reactions & are all:
    Proteins
  144. The trace element most essential for oxygen transport in the blood is:
    Iron
  145. Correct pH values:
    Acid_
    Neutral_
    Alkaline_
  146. 5, 7, 9
  147. Organic molecules correct subunits:
    Glycogen ___
    DNA & RNA___
    True fats_____
    • Glucose 
    • Nucleotides
    • Fatty acids & glycerol
  148. An enzyme may become inactive when:
    • body temperature rises excessively
    • The pH of body fluids becomes too acidic
  149. Genetic code in our cells?
    DNA in chromosomes
  150. The energy transfer molecule formed in cell respiration is:
    ATP
  151. The waste product of cell respiration is:
    carbon dioxide
  152. The 2 elements that provide strength in bones & teeth are:
    Ca & P
  153. A carbohydrate is made of the elements:
    Carbon, hydrogen & oxygen
  154. The polysaccharide that is an energy source is:
    Glycogen, starch, sucrose
  155. The molecule used to synthesize the hormones estrogen & testosterone is:
    cholesterol
  156. Hydrogen bonds help maintain the 3 dimensional shape of:
    Proteins & DNA
  157. The trace element that helps maintain the shape of some proteins by forming bonds is:
    Sulfur
  158. Functions of proteins:
    • Muscle contraction
    • antibodies to pathogens
    • structures such as tendons
  159. An organic molecule that is an important part of cell membrane?
    Phospholipid
  160. Blood plasma is an example of:
    • An extracellular fluid
    • A transporting fluid
    • As solvent
  161. Name elements:
    • Carbon
    • oxygen
    • Iron
  162. Water is:
    a molecule made of hydrogen & oxygen
  163. Involve the sharing of electrons between atoms
    Not weakened in water solution
    Covalent bonds
  164. Involve the loss of electrons by 1 atom & the gain of these electrons by another atom
    Ionic bonds
  165. Inorganic molecules such as salts are formed by_____?
    Ionic bonds
  166. Water found surrounding cells
    Tissue fluid
  167. Water found in blood vessels
    Plasma
  168. Water found in lymph vessels
    Lymph
  169. Water found within cells
    Intracellular fluid
  170. Required for the complete breakdown of a glucose molecule which comes from breathing
    Oxygen
  171. The purpose of _________is to produce ATP to provide energy for cellular processes.
    Cell respiration
  172. A carbohydrate (sugar)molecule obtained from food.
    Glucose
  173. The CO2 formed is exhaled 
    The water formed becomes part of intracellular fluid
    The ATP produced is used for cellular functions that require energy
    The heat energy produced provides a constant body temperature
    Cell respiration
  174. Part of bones & teeth
    Iron
  175. Part of the hormone thyroxine
    Calcium
  176. Part of hemogoblin
    Iodine
  177. Prevents drastic changes in the pH of body fluids
    Buffer system
  178. Neutral point on the pH scale is:
    7.0
  179. Contains more H+ions than OH- ions
    Acidic solution
  180. The senses of taste depends upon the solvent ability of:
    water
  181. Excess body heat evaporates water on the skin surface
    In sweating
  182. A lubricant & prevents friction as food moves through the digestive tract
    Water
  183. The excretions of waste products in urine depends on:
    the solvent action of water
  184. a form of energy storage in liver
    Glycogen
  185. Form of energy
    True fats
  186. used to synthesize the steroid hormones
    cholesterol
  187. Part of DNA & RNA
    Pentose sugars
  188. Function:
    Muscle structure & contraction
    Part of the structure of skin & tendons
    Enzymes to catalyze reactions
    Hemogoblin transports oxygen in RBC's
    Function of proteins
  189. Are proteins
    theory is called the active site theory
    Shape is related to the type of reaction it will catalyze
    Changes in the body temperature or pH may affect the functioning
    Functions of enzymes
  190. DNA makes up the chromosomes of cells 
    RNA is a single strand of nucleotides
    RNA functions in the process of protein synthesis
    DNA is the genetic code for our hereditary characteristics
    Nucleic acids
  191. A specialized nucleotide
    Product of cell respiration 
    Needed for energy requiring cellular reactions 
    Contains 3 phosphate groups
    ATP
  192. Synthesis reaction involve the formation of bonds 
    Synthesis reaction usually require energy
    Decomposition reactions involve the breaking of bonds
    Decomposition reactions change large molecules to smaller ones
    Chemical reactions
  193. Disulfide bonds maintain the shape of some proteins 
    Glucose is an organic molecule because it contains carbon
    Water molecules are cohesive because of the presence of hydrogen bonds  
    Hydrogen bonds help maintain the shape of DNA
    Chemical bonds & molecules
  194. Saturated fatty acids have the maximum # of hydrogen atoms 
    Cholesterol is part of the cell membranes
    Trans fats are believed to contribute to atherosclerosis 
    Unsaturated fatty acids are often found in vegetable oils
    Lipids
  195. Water is considered the solvent within cells, tissues & blood vessels
    -The mineral necessary for blood clotting is calcium
    -Ionic bonds are found in molecules of salts
    -Oxygen is one of the reactant molecules in cell respiration
    Inorganic compounds
  196. -Some lipid & carbohydrates molecules are storage forms for energy 
    -The genetic code is contained in DNA, a type of nucleic acid
    -Cell membranes contain phospholipids, steroids, & proteins
    -Disaccharide molecules are important because they are energy sources
    -Proteins may be structural molecules in cells
    -The synthesis of proteins requires RNA
    -Oligosaccharides are markers of "self" on cell membranes
    Organic compounds

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