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Refresher: what are predicates?
nouns, verbs, adjectives
What is the grammar differences for predicates and subjects in English compared to Ilokano?
In English, the subject comes before the predicate: "My surname is Sagucio."
In Ilokano, the predicate occurs before the subject: "Sagucio ti apelyidok."
What are the two common linkers in Ilokano?
"ti" and "ni"
What kinds of words can be used as predicates in Ilokano?
Any kinds of words can be used as predicates: nouns, verbs, adjectives, etc. In English, verbs are commonly used as predicates.
Are there any linking verbs in Ilokano, like English?
No. The noun or adjective which is used to describe the subject is itself the predicate.
When do we use "ti", especially as a subject determiner?
When subjects are common nouns such as nagan and apelyido.
When is "ni" used?
When the subject is a personal noun (i.e., Luz or Juan).
i.e.: Americano ni David.
What is the differences between English and Ilokano in the use of the possessed and possessor?
In English, the possessor precedes he thing that is possessed, i.e., John's dog. Or, it may follow, i.e., The dog of John.
In Ilokano, a possessor CAN ONLY FOLLOW a possessed noun, i.e., aso ni Juan.
When is "ti" and "ni" used for possessors?
Ti when the possessor is a common noun, i.e., aso ti Americano. Ni when the possessor is a personal noun, i.e., aso ni Juan.
What is special about kinship relationship words in Ilokano?
They are considered personal nouns, like people's names.
What do you call the determiners that introduce a possessor noun phrase?
What do you call the set in which the possessor can be a pronoun instead of a noun phrase?
genitive or ko set pronouns. They are attached to the end of the possessed nouns. These are the -ko/-k and -mo/-m.
When do you use the -ko and -mo and when do you use the -k and -m?
When the possessed noun ends in a consonant, it's the -ko & -mo. When it ends in a vowel, it is the -k and -m.