Praxis II Multiple Skills Test Science
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What are Atoms?
- All Matter consists of Atoms
- Atoms are the basic units of matter
- Atoms nave a proton, neutron, and electrons
- the proton and the neutron are in the center the electrons circle the center
What does the nucleus of a Atom contain?
The nucleus of an atom consists of protons and neutrons. It is positively charged, dense, and heavier than the surrounding electrons. The plural form of nucleus is nuclei.
What are the Electrons of an Atom?
Electrons are atomic particles that are negatively charged and orbit the nucleus of an atom.
What determines the atomic number of a element?
The number of protons in the nucleus usually determines the atomic number of an element.
Carbon atoms, for example, have six protons. The atomic number of carbon is 6.
What is a Nucleon?
The collective number of protons and neutrons in an atom.
How many elements are there currently?
There are currently 117 elements 94 of which occur naturally.
What is the difference between atoms and molecules?
Elements from the periodic table such as hydrogen, carbon, iron, helium, mercury, and oxygen are atoms. Atoms combine to form molecules.
For example, two atoms of hydrogen (H) and one atom of oxygen (O) combine to form water (H2O).
What is the difference between an Ionic and a Covalent Bond?
A covalent bond is formed when atoms share electrons.
An ionic bond is formed when an atom transfers an electron to another atom.
What is a compound?
When two or more different types of atoms bind together chemically, a compound is made.
What is Matter and what four states does it have?
Matter refers to a substance that has mass
- States1. Solid
- 2. Liquid
- 3. Gas
Mass is a measure of the amount of substance in an object.
Weight is a measure of the gravitational pull of Earth on an object or between two bodies.
Volume is a measure of the amount of cubic space occupied.
Density is a measure of the amount of mass per unit volume.
What is a physical change?
A psychical change is a change where the properties of the substance has changed but the substance hasn't changes.
For example, when water becomes ice it has undergone a physical change, but not a chemical change. It has changed its form, but not its composition. It is still H2O. Chemical
What is a chemical change?
Chemical changes are when a change in a substance results in a different substance.
What is a mixture?
Mixtures contain two or more substances that are combined but have not reacted chemically with each other. Mixtures can be separated using physical methods, while compounds can not.
What are the two most abundant elements in the universe?
What is Heat?
Heat is the transfer of energy from a body or system as a result of thermal contact. Heat consists of random motion and the vibration of atoms, molecules, and ions. The higher the temperature is, the greater the atomic or molecular motion will be.
What is Energy?
- Energy is the capacity to do work. Work is the amount of energy that must be transferred to overcome a force.
- Work is measured in joules (J). The rate at which work is performed is known as power.
What is Thermal Energy?
Thermal energy is the total kinetic and potential energy present in a system.
What is Thermal Conduct?
Thermal contact refers to energy transferred to a body by a means other than work. A system in thermal contact with another can exchange energy with it through the process of heat. Thermal contact does not necessarily involve direct physical contact.
What is Entrophy?
Entropy refers to the amount of energy in a system that is no longer available for work. Entropy is also a term used to describe the amount of disorder in a system.
Describe Conservation of Energy?
Conservation of energy is a concept that refers to the fact that the total amount of energy in a closed system is constant.
What is Perpetual Motion?
Perpetual motion is the misguided belief that a system can continuously produce more energy than it consumes. Since the law of conservation of energy states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, a true perpetual motion machine is not possible.
What is Kinetic Energy?
- Kinetic and potential energy are two commonly known types of energy. Kinetic energy refers to the energy of an object in motion.
- KE = ½ mv2KE Kinetic Energy
- m= Mass
- V= Velocity
What is Potential Energy?
- energy. Potential energy refers to a capacity for doing work that is based upon position or configuration.
- PE = mgh
- “PE” =potential energy
- “m” = mass
- “g” = gravity
- “h” = height
What is gravity?
Gravitational force is a universal force that causes masses to exert forces on other masses.
What was Newton's First Law?
This is also known as the law of inertia. It states that a body in motion tends to stay in motion and a body at rest tends to stay at rest until another force acts upon it.
What was Newton's Second Law?
- Force equals mass times acceleration.
- F = ma
- “F” = force
- “m” = mass
- “a” = acceleration
What was Newton's Third Law?
This states that for every force there is an equal and opposite force. This also applies to the law of work, the law of energy, and the laws of power.
Name some simple machines.
- incline plane
- wheel and axle
What is Friction?
Friction is the resistance to motion that occurs where two surfaces touch each other.
What is a electromagnetic field?
The attractive force between the electrons and the nucleus is called the electric force. A positive (+) charge or a negative charge (-) creates a field of sorts in the empty space around it, which is known as an electromagnetic field.
- Like charges repel
- unlike charges attract
What is a simple circuit?
- Movement of electric charge along a path between areas of high electric potential and low electric potential is the definition of a simple circuit.
- it is measures in amps.
What is a magnet?
A magnet is a piece of metal, such as iron, steel, or magnetite (loadstone) that can affect another substance within its field of force that has like characteristics.
What is a magnetic field?
The motions of subatomic structures (nuclei and electrons) produce a magnetic field. It is the direction of the spin and orbit that indicate the direction of the field. The strength of a magnetic field is known as the magnetic moment. As electrons spin and orbit a nucleus, they produce a magnetic field.
What is sound?
- Sound is a pressure disturbance that moves through a medium in the form of mechanical waves, which transfer energy from one particle to the next. Sound requires a medium to travel through, such as air, water, or other matter since it is the vibrations that transfer energy to adjacent particles, not the actual movement of particles over a great distance.
- A wavelength consists of one compression and one rarefaction. Different sounds have different wavelengths. Sound is a form of kinetic energy.
What is sound pitch?
- Pitch is the quality of sound determined by frequency.
- For example, a musical note can be tuned to a specific frequency. A, for instance, has a frequency of 440 Hz, which is a higher frequency than middle C. Humans can detect frequencies between about 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz.Loudness is a human’s perception of sound intensity.
What is sound intensity?
Sound intensity is measured as the sound power per unit area, and can be expressed in decibels.
What is Timber?
Timbre is a human’s perception of the type or quality of sound.
What is Oscillation?
Oscillation is a measurement, usually of time, against a basic value, equilibrium, or rest point.
What is the Doppler Effect?
- The Doppler effect refers to the effect the relative motion of the source of the wave and the location of the observer has on waves.
- Example: A car changes pitch as it passes you.
What is the Kinetic theory of gases?
The higher the temperature is, the greater the motion will be. As the temperature of a gas increases, so does the kinetic energy of the molecules. In other words, gas will occupy a greater volume as the temperature is increased and a lesser volume as the temperature is decreased. In addition, the same amount of gas will occupy a greater volume as the temperature increases, but pressure remains constant.
What is a Inorganic Compound?
The main trait of inorganic compounds is that they lack carbon. Inorganic compounds include mineral salts, metals and alloys, non-metallic compounds such as phosphorus, and metal complexes
What is a Organic Compound?
Two of the main characteristics of organic compounds are that they include carbon and are formed by covalent bonds.
Are Hydrogen bonds weaker then covalent or ionic bonds?
What is a solution
A solution is a homogeneous mixture. A mixture is two or more different substances that are mixed together, but not combined chemically. Homogeneous mixtures are those that are uniform in their composition.
Solutions consist of a solute (the substance that is dissolved) and a solvent (the substance that does the dissolving).
What is a mixture?
A mixture is a combination of two or more substances that are not bonded.
What is a suspension?
- Suspensions are mixtures of heterogeneous materials. Particles are usually larger than those found in true solutions. Dirt mixed vigorously with water is an example of a suspension.
- The dirt is temporarily suspended in water, but the two separate once the mixing is ceased.
What is a colloid suspension?
A mixture of large (1 nm to 500 nm) particles is called a colloidal suspension. The particles are termed dispersants and the dispersing medium is similar to the solvent in a solution. Sol refers to a liquid or a solid that also has solids dispersed through it, such as milk or gelatin. An aerosol spray is a colloid suspension of gas and the solid or liquid being dispersed.
What is a emulsion?
An emulsion refers to a liquid or a solid that has a liquid dispersed through it.
What is a foam?
A foam is a liquid that has gas dispersed through it.
What are some properties of an acid?
- they conduct electricity
- change blue litmus paper to red
- have a sour taste
- react with bases to neutralize them
- react with active metals to free hydrogen
What are the properties of a base?
- they conduct electricity
- change red litmus paper to blue
- feel slippery
- react with acids to neutralize their properties
What are the properties of Salts?
- formed from acid base reactions
- are ionic compounds consisting of metallic and nonmetallic ions
- dissociate in water
- are comprised of tightly bonded ions
What is PH?
The potential of hydrogen (pH) is a measurement of the concentration of hydrogen ions in a substance in terms of the number of moles of H+ per liter of solution.
What is Life Dependent on?
- A variety of forms of carbon
- In the atmosphere, carbon dioxide in the forms of methane and black carbon soot produce the greenhouse effect that provides a habitable atmosphere.
- The earth's atmosphere and electromagnetic field, which shield the surface from harmful radiation and allow useful radiation to go through
- The earth's relationship to the sun and the moon, which creates the four seasons and the cycles of plant and animal life
- The combination of water, carbon, and nutrients, which provides sustenance for life and regulates the climate system in a habitable temperature range with non-toxic air.
What is Geology?
Geology is the study of the origin and structure of the earth and of the changes it has undergone and is in the process of undergoing. Geologists work from the crust inward.
What is Meteorology?
Meteorology is the study of the atmosphere, including atmospheric pressure, temperature, clouds, winds, precipitation, etc. It is also concerned with describing and explaining weather.
What is Oceanography?
Oceanography is the study of the oceans, which includes studying their extent and depth, the physics and chemistry of ocean waters, and the exploitation of their resources.
What is Ecology?
Ecology is the study of living organisms in relation to their environment and to other living things. It is the study of the interrelations between the different components of the ecosystem.
What are the order of the Planets from the Sun ?
That are the terrestrial planets (Planets with ground)?
What are the Jovian Planets (Planets that are gaseous)?
- Jupiter (the largest planet)
What is the hydrosphere?
The hydrosphere is anything on earth that is related to water, whether it is in the air, on land, or in a plant or animal system.
What is a Aquifer?
An aquifer is an underground water reservoir formed from groundwater that has infiltrated from the surface by passing through the soil and permeable rock layers (the zone of aeration) to a zone of saturation where the rocks are impermeable.
What is a Fresh water biome?
Freshwater biomes are areas of relatively slow-moving water, such as rivers, lakes, and ponds.
What is are Estuaries?
Estuaries are coastline regions where the fresh water from rivers mixes with the salt water of the ocean.
This mix is attractive to numerous types of marine life (and birds). It is especially suitable for laying eggs because the water is quite still and its brackishness hides newborn fish.
What is the The intertidal zone.
The intertidal zone is the space on the coastline that is under water during high tide and dry during low tide.
What is The Subtidal zone?
The subtidal zone, which may have large sandy plains, is always under water near the coast.
What is the The euphotic zone of the ocean?
The euphotic zone is the surface area of deep ocean water where there is a lot of sunshine and oxygen and therefore many small photosynthetic organisms. However, there are few nutrients because they fall to the bottom.
What is The bathyal zone of the ocean?
The bathyal zone is the area further down that has dim light and no little organisms. It does, however, have some fish that go to feed on the organisms on the surface.
What is The abyssal zone of the ocean?
The abyssal zone is the bottom of the ocean where it is pitch black. There are no producers and little oxygen. This zone is very cold and has high pressure. There are predator fish and living organisms that feed on whatever falls from the surface.
What is the Biosphere?
Biosphere is the term used by physical geographers to describe the living world of trees, bugs, and animals.
What will affect the biosphere
- The distance and tilt between the earth and the sun
- Climate, daily weather, and erosion -These all change the land.
- Earthquakes, tornadoes, volcanoes, tsunamis, and other natural phenomena – These all change the land.Chemical erosion– This changes the composition of rocks and organic materials, as well as how bacteria and single-celled organisms break down organic and inorganic materials.
What is an ecosystem?
An ecological system, or ecosystem, is the community of all the living organisms in a specific area interacting with non-living factors such as temperature, sunlight, atmospheric pressure, weather patterns, wind, types of nutrients, etc
What is a biome?
- A biome is a general ecosystem type defined by the plants and animals that live there and the local climate patterns.
- Examples include tropical rainforests or savannas, deserts, grasslands, deciduous forests, tundra, woodlands, and ice caps.
What is erosion?
Erosion is the process that breaks down matter, whether it is a rock that is broken into pebbles or mountains that are rained on until they become hills.
What are Climates?
Climate is the atmospheric condition in a certain location near the surface of the earth.
What are the factors that affect climate?
- Atmospheric pressure
- The number of clouds and the amount of dust or smog
What are the layers of the earth?
What are the four layers of the atmosphere?
- Troposphere - closest to the earthStratosphere - the upper layer has ozone which is responsible for dissolving the suns ultraviolet rays
- Mesosphere - is the coldest layer. Temperatures drop to -100°C at the top
- Thermosphere - This layer is very thin and has many ionized atoms with a net electrical charge. The aurora and Van Allen Belts are here. This layer also absorbs the most energetic photons from the sun and reflects radio waves, enabling long distance radio communication.
What is Paleontology?
Paleontology is the study of prehistoric plant and animal life through the analysis of fossil remains.
What is the Law of Superposition of sedimentary rock?
The bottom layer of a series of sedimentary layers is the oldest, unless it has been overturned or older rock has been pushed over it.
What are the four basic eras of life?
- Proterozoic - the age of primitive lifePaleozoic - the age of fishesMesozoic - the age of dinosaursCenozoic - the age of mammals.
What are the three subdivisions of rock?
- Igneous (magmatites) - Formed from cooling magmaMetamorphic - Under conditions of high temperature and pressure within the earth's crust, rock material melts and changes structure, transitioning or metamorphosing into a new type of rock with different minerals.
- Sedimentary – This is the most common type of rock on earth. It is formed by sedimentation, compaction, and then cementation of many small particles of mineral, animal, or plant material.
What are the kingdoms in Biology
- Moneran Kingdom - Simplest life forms known to man (one chromosome)
- Protist Kingdom - Simplest eukaryotes. They have a true nucleus surrounded by a membrane that separates it from the cytoplasm
- Fungi Kingdom - have no chlorophyll, so they don't make their own food like plants. They reproduce using spores. Fungi are made up of filaments called hyphae that, in larger fungi, can interlace to form a tissue called mycelium.
- Plant Kingdom - consists of all multi-celled organisms that have chlorophyll and make their own food
- Animal Kingdom - consists of all multi-celled organisms that have no chlorophyll and have to feed on existing organic material. Animals have the most complex tissues and can move about.
What are the invertebrate groups?
- Marine invertebrate - Sponges, Jellyfish
- Freshwater Invertebrates - worms, microscopic crustations
- Terrestrial Invertebrates - insects, mollusks, snales
What are the vertebrates groups?
- Fish - fish
- Amphibians - Frogs
- Reptiles - Snakes
- Mammals - Humans
What living processes do animals share to stay alive?
- Transport - a way to moving the nutrients around
- Respiration - living things need a way to exchange gases
- Regulation- coordinating things through a nervous system
- Reproduction - Bearing of young the more advanced the longer the young take to reach maturity.
- Locomotion - The ability to move
What is a virus?
- Viruses enter the body by inhalation (airborne) or through contact with contaminated food, water, or infected tissues. They affect the body by taking over the cell's protein synthesis mechanism to make more viruses. They kill the host cell and impact tissue and organ operations.
- measles, rabies, pneumonia, and AIDS
How can bacteria make you sick?
- Bacteria enter the body through breaks in the skin or contaminated food or water, or by inhalation. They reproduce rapidly and produce toxins that kill healthy host tissues.
- include diphtheria, bubonic plague, tuberculosis, and syphilis.
How can fungi make you sick?
- Fungi feed on healthy tissues of the body by sending rootlike tendrils into the tissues to digest them extracellularly.
- athlete's foot and ringworm
How can parasites make you sick?
- Parasites enter the body through the skin, via insect bites, or through contaminated food or water.
- tapeworms, malaria, or typhus
What is a Autotrophs?
Autotrophs are organisms capable of producing their own food. The organic molecules they produce are food for all other organisms (heterotrophs).
What is a Herbivore?
Herbivores are animals that eat only plants (deer, rabbits, etc.).
What is a Carnivore?
Carnivores, or secondary consumers, are animals that eat the bodies of other animals for food.
What is a Omnivore?
Omnivores are animals that eat both plants and other animals (humans).
What is a Decomposer?
Break down the complex structures of the bodies of living things into simpler forms that can be used by other living things.
What are Abiotic factors?
Abiotic factors are the physical and chemical factors in the environment that are nonliving, but upon which the growth and survival of living organisms depends.
- Abiotic factors include:
- Light intensity available for photosynthesis
- Temperature range
- Available moisture
- Type of rock substratum
- Type of minerals
- Type of atmospheric gases
- Relative acidity (pH) of the system
What are Biotic factors?
Biotic factors are the living components of the environment that affect, directly or indirectly, the ecology of an area, possibly limiting the type and number of resident species.
- Biotic factors include:
- Population levels of each species
- The food requirements of each species
- The interactions between species
- The wastes produced
What is a hydrocarbon?
Hydrocarbons, composed only of hydrogen and carbon, are the simplest organic molecules.
What is a Carbohydrate?
Carbohydrates are compounds made of hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen. There are three types of these macromolecules (large molecules):
Sugars are soluble in water and, although they have less energy than fats, provide energy more quickly.
Starches, insoluble in water, are long chains of glucose that act as reserve substances. Potatoes and cereals are valuable foods because they are rich in starch. Animals retain glucose in their cells as glucogen, a special type of starch.
Cellulose, composed of glucose chains, makes up the cells and tissues of plants. It is one of the most common organic materials.
What are Lipids?
Lipids are compounds that are insoluble or only partially soluble in water. There are three main types:
fats, which act as an energy reserve for organisms
phospholipids, which are one of the essential components of cell membranes
steroids such as cholesterol and estrogen, which are very important to metabolism.
What are proteins?
Proteins are complex substances that make up almost half the dry weight of animal bodies. These molecules contain hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, and other elements, chiefly nitrogen and sulfur. Proteins make up muscle fibers and, as enzymes, act as catalysts.
What are Nucleic acids?
Nucleic acids are large molecules (polymers) composed of a large number of simpler molecules (nucleotides). Each one has a sugar containing five carbons (pentose), a phosphorous compound (phosphate group), and a nitrogen compound (nitrogenated base). Nucleic acids facilitate perpetuation of the species because they carry genetic information as DNA and RNA.
How do plants manufacture food?
The chlorophyll in chloroplasts is responsible for the light, or luminous, phase of photosynthesis. The energy it absorbs breaks down water absorbed through the roots into hydrogen and oxygen to form ATP molecules that store energy. In the dark phase, when the plant has no light, the energy molecules are used to attach carbon dioxide to water and form glucose, a sugar.
What is a Eukaryotic cells?
Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus, a big dark spot floating somewhere in the center that acts like the brain of the cell by controlling eating, movement, and reproduction. A nuclear envelope surrounds the nucleus and its contents, but allows RNA and proteins to pass through. Chromatin, made up of DNA, RNA, and nuclear proteins, is present in the nucleus. The nucleus also contains a nucleolus made of RNA and protein.
What does a Mitochondria do in a cell?
Mitochondria are very small organelles that take in nutrients, break them down, and create energy for the cell through a process called cellular respiration.
What do Chloroplasts do in a plant cell?
Chloroplasts, which make plants green, are the food producers of a plant cell. They differ from an animal cell's mitochondria, which break down sugars and nutrients. Photosynthesis occurs when the energy from the sun hits a chloroplast and the chlorophyll uses that energy to combine carbon dioxide and water to make sugars and oxygen.
What is passive and active transport?
- Passive transport within a cell does not require energy and work.
- Example:Osmosis, which is the movement of water across a membrane. Too much water in a cell can cause it to burst, so the cell moves ions in and out to help equalize the amount of water.
- Active transport is when a cell uses energy to move individual molecules across the cell membrane to maintain a proper balance.
- Proteins embedded in the lipid bilayer do most of the transport work. There are hundreds of different types of proteins because they are specific. For instance, a protein that moves glucose will not move calcium. The activity of these proteins can be stopped by inhibitors or poisons, which can destroy or plug up a protein.
What is Mitotic cell replication?
Mitosis is the duplication of a cell and all its parts, including the DNA, into two identical daughter cells.
What are the five stages of mi tosis?
Prophase is the process of duplicating everything in preparation for division.
Metaphase – The cell's different pieces align themselves for the split. The DNA lines up along a central axis and the centrioles send out specialized tubules that connect to the centromere. The centromere has two strands of a chromosome (condensed DNA) attached to it.
Anaphase – Half of the chromosomes go one way and half go another.
Telophase – When the chromosomes get to the side of the cell, the cell membrane closes in and splits the cell into two pieces. This results in two separate cells, each with half of the original DNA.
Interphase is the normal state of the cell, or the resting stage between divisions. During this stage, the cell duplicates nucleic acids in preparation for the next division.
What is a Microbe?
Microbes are the smallest, simplest, and most abundant organisms on earth.
What is a Gymnosperms?
Gymnosperms are plants with vascular systems and seeds but no flowers (flowers are an evolutionary advancement)
What is a Cycad?
Cycads are sturdy plants with big, waxy fronds that make them look like ferns or palms. They can survive in harsh conditions if there is warm weather. For reproduction, they have big cones located in the center of the plant. The female plant grows a fruit in the middle of the stem.
What are Conifers?
- Conifers are trees that thrive in northern latitudes and have cones.
- Examples: pine, cedar, redwood, and spruce.
What are Angiosperms?
Angiosperms are plants that have flowers. This is advantageous because the plant's seeds and pollen can be spread not only by gravity and wind, but also by insects and animals.
What are a Arthropods characteristics?
- They have an exoskeleton (outside instead of inside).
- They molt. As the arthropod grows, it must shed its old shell and grow a new one.
- They have several legs, which are jointed.
- Their advanced nervous systems allow for hunting, moving around, finding a mate, and learning new behaviors for adaptation.
- They develop through metamorphosis. As arthropods develop, they change body shape.
What are the two types of metamorphosis?
Complete – The entire body shape changes. An example is butterflies, which change from worm-like larvae to insects with wings.
Gradual – The arthropod starts off small with no wings, and then molts and grows wings. Grasshoppers are an example.
What groups do Reptiles include?
Crocodilia is a group of reptiles that can grow quite large, and includes alligators and crocodiles. Normally found near the water in warmer climates, Crocodilia might be more closely related to birds than other reptiles.
Squamata is the order of reptiles that includes snakes and lizards. Snakes are special because they have no legs and no ears. They feel vibrations, smell with their tongues, have specialized scales, and can unhinge their jaws to swallow prey that is larger than they are. Like snakes, lizards have scales, but they differ in that they have legs, can dig, can climb trees, and can grab things.
Chelonia is the order of reptiles that includes turtles and tortoises. It is a special group because its members have shells. Different varieties live in forests, water, and deserts, or anywhere the climate is warm enough. They also live a long time, even hundreds of years. Turtles are typically found near water and tortoises on land, even dry areas.
Name the three types of mammal reproducation?
are rare mammals that lay eggs. These were the first mammals, and are more closely related to reptiles than other mammals.
- the duck-billed platypus and the spiny anteater.
Marsupials are special mammals. They give birth to live young, but the babies mature in pouches, where they are carried and can feed on milk.
kangaroos, possums, and koalas
mammals give birth from the females' placenta to live young.
Example: Humans, Dogs
What are Producers?
Producers – Plants and vegetables are at the beginning of the food chain because they take energy from the sun and make food for themselves through photosynthesis. They are food sources for other organisms.
What are Consumers?
Consumers – There are three levels of consumers: the organisms that eat plants (primary consumers, or herbivores); the organisms that eat the primary consumers (secondary consumers, or carnivores); and, in some ecosystems, the organisms that eat both plants and animals (tertiary consumers, or omnivores).
What are the Decomposers?
Decomposers – These are the organisms that eat dead things or waste matter and return the nutrients to the soil, thus returning essential molecules to the producers and completing the cycle.
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