Psychology Chapter 14

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Psychology Chapter 14
2013-08-02 00:33:12
Psychology Chapter 14

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  1. Schizophrenia runs in families. The illness occurs in ____ percent of the general population
    A. 1
    B. 2
    C. 3
    D. 4
  2. Chemical neurotransmitters involve in schizophrenia______ and _______.
    Dopamine and Glutamate
  3. Do people with schizophrenia have brains with more gray matter, larger fluid filled cavities/ventricals and different brain activities 
     A. False
    B. True
    B. True
  4. Schizophrenia symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions usually start between ages __ and __.
    16 years and 30 years of age
  5. described prodomal period of schizoprenia
    A combination of factors such as isolation, withdrawn, increase in unusual thoughts, suspicions and a family history of psychosis
  6. The percentage of people with schizophrenia death by suicide
    A. 5%
    B. 10%
    C. 15%
    D. 20%
    B. 10%
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. Troubling thoughts, feelings, or behaviors that cause psychological discomfort or interfere with
    a  person’s ability to function are known as what disorders
    Psychological disorder
  8. Describe life transitions
    • death of a loved one, dissolving marriage,
    • adjustment to retirement
  9. Use of psychological techniques to treat
    emotional, behavioral, and interpersonal problems are known as
  10. Describe Biomedical
    • use of medications and other medical
    • therapies to treat the symptoms associated with psychological disorders
  11. Who developed Psychoanalysis based on his theory of personality
    Sigmund Freud
  12. Causes of Psychological
    • •Undesirable urges and conflicts are
    • “repressed” or pushed to the unconscious

    • •Unconscious conflicts exert influence on
    • behaviors, emotions, and interpersonal dynamics

    • •Understanding and insight into repressed
    • conflicts leads to recognition and resolution
  13. Describe Techniques of Psychoanalysis with following symptoms 
    •patient’s unconscious attempt to block revelation of unconscious material; usually sign that patient is close to revealing painful memories
    • Free Association Resistance
    • Resistance
  14. Describe Free association Psychoanalysis Technique
    spontaneous report of all mental images, thoughts, feelings as a way of revealing unconscious conflicts
  15. Describe Resistance Psychoanalysis Technique
    patient’s unconscious attempt to block revelation of unconscious material; usually sign that patient is close to revealing painful memories
  16. Psychoanalytic Technique Dream interpretation
    dreams are the “royal road to the unconscious”; interpretation often reveals unconscious conflicts
  17. Describe Transference Psychoanalytic Technique:
    process where emotions originally associated with a significant person are unconsciously transferred to the therapist
  18. Describe Interpersonal Therapy (IPT)
    • focus on current relationships;
    • interpersonal problems seen as core of psychological symptoms; highly
    • structured
  19. Who Developed Humanistic Therapies
    Carl Rogers
  20. Humanistic perspective emphasizes
    • human potential, self-awareness, and
    • freewill.
  21. Humanistic therapies focus on
    • self-perception and individual’s conscious
    • thoughts and perceptions
  22. the most common form of humanistic therapy
    Client-centered (or person-centered) therapy
  23. Client-Centered Therapy focuses on client’s
    Subjective perception of self and environment. Does not speak of “illness” or “cure
  24. Therapeutic Conditions Genuineness
    • therapist openly shares thoughts without
    • defensiveness
  25. Empathic understanding
    • creates a psychological mirror reflecting
    • clients thoughts and feelings
  26. Client-centered therapy Motivational interviewing
    only one or two sessions; help clients overcome reluctance to change; encourage client’s self motivating statements
  27. Client-centered therapy Marital counseling
    parenting, education, business, community and international relations
  28. Behavioristic perspective emphasizes that
    behavior (normal and abnormal) is learned
  29. Behavior Therapy Uses principles of _____ and _____ conditioning to change maladaptive behaviors
    classical and operant
  30. Based on classical conditioning Uses three steps:
    • –Progressive relaxation
    • –Development of anxiety hierarchy and control scene
    • –Combination of progressive relaxation with anxiety hierarchy
  31. Aversion Therapy for Alcoholism
    • •Relatively ineffective, does not generalize very well beyond therapy
    • •Pairs an aversive stimulus with the undesired behavior
  32. Cognitive Therapy
    • •Based on the assumption that psychological problems are due to maladaptive patterns of thinking
    • •Therapy focuses on recognition and alteration of unhealthy thinking patterns
  33. Rational Emotive Therapy Developed by
    Albert Ellis
  34. Rational Emotive Therapy 

    •ABC model
    –Activating Event


  35. Describe ABC model
    • •Identification and elimination of core irrational beliefs
    • •Direct and often confrontational form of therapy
  36. Describe Aaron Beck’s Cognitive Therapy
    • •Problems due to negative cognitive bias  that leads to distorted perceptions and interpretations of events
    • •Therapist acts as model and aims for a collaborative therapeutic climate
    • •Recognize the bias then test accuracy of these beliefs
  37. Describe Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy
    •Integrates cognitive and behavioral techniques.  Based on the assumption that thoughts, moods, and behaviors are interrelated.
  38. Describe self help groups
    Format varies (structured and unstructured)

    Many follow a 12-step approach

    Have been shown to be very effective

    More research needed: reasons for effectiveness and kinds of people and problems that benefit from this approach
  39. Eye movement desensitization reprocessing (EMDR) Developed By _______
    •Developed by Francis Shapiro
  40. Describe Eye movement desensitization reprocessing (EMDR)
    •Useful for anxiety and relieving traumatic memories

    •Involves following finger waving while holding mental image of disturbing event, situation, or memory

    •Lots of criticisms of this approach
  41. Most Western psychotherapy focuses on the
    individual, internal causes, burden on client
  42. Collectivistic cultures have
    have more focus on needs of the group, less internal causes, burden on community
  43. Typical Antipsychotic Medications –Globally alter brain ______ levels
  44. Atypical antipsychotics (Newer)
    –Affect levels of _______ as well as
  45. Antianxiety medications
    • •Benzodiazepines (Valium, Xanax)
    • –reduce anxiety through increasing level of GABA
    • –side effects include decreased coordination, reaction time, alertness, addiction
    • •Non-benzodiazepine—(Buspar)
    • –may take a few weeks to work
    • –does not reduce alertness
  46. Name the following MEDICATION
    •Used to treat bipolar disorder (manic-depression)

    •Used to interrupt acute manic attacks and prevent relapse

    •Can have serious side effects and must be closely monitored
  47. Describe Anti-Depressant Medication
    • First generation—tricyclics and MAO inhibitors
    • –Effective for about 75% of patients
    • –Produce troubling side effects
    • •MAO inhibitors can have serious physiological side effects when taken with some common foods
    • •Tricyclics caused weight gain, dry mouth, dizziness, sedation
  48. Describe Second Generation  Anti-Depressant Medication
    • •Second generation—chemically different but no more effective than earlier drugs (Wellbutrin, Desyrel)
    • •Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI)—have fewer undesirable side effects than earlier drugs (Prozac, Paxil, Zoloft)
  49. Describe Pharmacogenetics
    • •The study of how genes influence an individual’s response to drugs
    • •May help to overcome trial-and-error nature of prescribing psychotropic medications
  50. Describe Electroconvulsive Therapy
    • •Used for severe depression
    • •Very effective for quick relief of symptoms of severe depression (can be used until medication begins to work)
    • •Creates “seizures” in patient, perhaps “rebooting” the brain
    • •May have cognitive side effects such as memory loss
    • •Very controversial treatment
  51. Vague nerve stimulation (VNS) involves
    involves implanting a device to chest wall that sends electrical currents to the brain stem.
  52. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) involves the
    use of electrodes implanted in brain to send electrical signals.
  53. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) stimulates
    certain regions of the brain with magnetic pulses.
  54. Pharmacogenetics
    • The study of how genes influence an individual’s response to drugs
    • May help to overcome trial-and-error nature of prescribing psychotropic medications
  55. Vague nerve stimulation (VNS) involves
    involves implanting a device to chest wall that sends electrical currents to the brain stem
  56. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) involves the
    involves the use of electrodes implanted in brain to send electrical signals
  57. Stressors
    Specific events or chronic pressures that place demands on a person or threaten the person's well-being
  58. Stress
    The physical and psychological response to internal or external stressors
  59. Health Psychology
    The subfield of psychology concerned with ways psychological factors influence the causes and treatment of physical illness and the maintenance of health
  60. Fight-or-Flight Response
    An emotional and physiological reaction to an emergency that increases readiness for action
  61. General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
    A three-stage physiological response that appears regardless of the stressor that is encountered
  62. Type A behavior pattern
    The tendency toward easily aroused hostility, impatience, a sense of time urgency, and competitive achievement strivings
  63. Rational Coping
    Facing a stressor and working to overcome it