Fund 2 A&P Cells

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Steph242
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228533
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Fund 2 A&P Cells
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2013-08-01 23:31:12
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Fund 2 A&P Cells
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  1. Made of phospholipids, protein & cholesterol
    -Forms the outermost boundary of a cell
    -Permits certain substances to come in or leave the cell
    -Is selectively permeable
    Cell membrane
  2. A watery solution of minerals, organic molecules & gases 
    -Found between the cell membrane & the nucleus
    Cytoplasm
  3. Contains the chromosomes of a cell
    -is the control center of a cell because the genes it contains 
    -Contains the nucleolus 
    -Mature red blood cells lack this structure
    Nucleus
  4. The 3 organic molecules that make up cell membrane
    • 1. Phospholipids 2. Proteins
    • 3. Cholesterol
  5. Provides stability for the cell membrane
    Cholesterol
  6. Form pores & transporters in the cell membrane
    Proteins
  7. Are antigens, in combination with oligosaccharides
    Proteins
  8. Permit the diffusion of lipid-soluble substances into or out of the cell.
    Phospholipids
  9. Are receptor sites for hormones
    Proteins
  10. Structure: An extensive series of membranous tubules that extend from the nuclear membrane to the cell membrane may be rough or smooth. 
    Function: Passageway for transport of materials within the cell
    Endoplasmic reticulum
  11. Structure: Made of proteins & ribosomal RNA
    Function: The site of protein synthesis
    Ribosomes
  12. Structure: A series of flat, membraneous sacs
    Function: Synthesize carbohydrates & secrete materials from the cell
    Golgi apparatus
  13. Structure: Double-membrane structures; the inner membrane has folds called cristae
    Function: the site of ATP production
    Mitochondria
  14. Structure: A single-membrane structures that contain tissue-digesting enzymes 
    Function: Digest warn out cell parts or ingested bacteria
    Lysosomes
  15. Structure: Two rod shaped structures perpendicular to one another
    Function: Organize the spindle fibers during cell division
    Centrioles
  16. Structure: Short thread-like projections through the cell membrane
    Function: Sweep materials across the cell surface
    Cilia
  17. Structure: A single, long, thread-like projection 
    Function: Provides motility for a sperm cell
    Flagellum
  18. Structure: Folds of the cell membrane on the free surface
    Function: Increase surface area for absorption by the cell
    Microvilli
  19. Structure: Barrel-shaped enzymatic structure 
    Function: The site of destruction of damaged proteins
    Proteasome
  20. Definition: The movement of molecules from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration
    Example: The movement of oxygen from the blood to the cells of the body.
    Diffusion
  21. Definition: The diffusion of water through an semipermeable membrane.
    EX: The absorption of water by the small intestine or kidneys
    Osmosis
  22. Definition: Diffusion of molecules, requiring carrier enzymes or transporters 
    EX: The intake of glucose by cells of the body
    Facilitated diffusion
  23. Definition: The use of energy to move molecules from an area of lesser concentration to an area of greater concentration
    EX: The absorption of amino acids or glucose by the cells of the small intestine
    Active transport
  24. Definition: Water & dissolved materials moved through a membrane from an area of higher pressure to an area of lower pressure
    EX: Blood pressure in capillaries forces plasma out to become tissue fluid
    Filtration
  25. Definition: The engulfing of something by a moving cell 
    Ex: The engulfing of bacteria by white blood cells
    Phagocytosis
  26. Definition: The engulfing of something by stationary cell 
    Ex: the reabsorption of small proteins by cells of the kidneys tubules
    Pinocytosis
  27. Has the same concentration of dissolved material as does a cell
    Isotonic solution
  28. Has higher concentration of dissolved material than does a cell
    Hypertonic solution
  29. Has lower concentration of dissolved materials than does a cell
    Hypotonic solution
  30. Makes up chromosomes of a cell, which are found in the nucleus
    DNA
  31. Human cells contain how many of these DNA structures?
    46
  32. A DNA molecule is made of ___strands of nucleotides twisted into a spiral called a _____.
    Two        Double helix
  33. The complimentary base pairing of DNA means that adenine is always paired with ________ cytosine is always paired with _______.
    Thymine           guanine
  34. A gene is a segment of DNA that is the genetic code for one ______
    Protein
  35. A protein is made of the smaller molecules called________
    amino acids
  36. The DNA code for one amino acid consists of how many bases? ______
    -Therefore, the name for this code may also be the ______ code 
    -The other name for a triplet is a ______
    Three        Triplex        Codon
  37. An RNA molecule consists of how many strands of nucleotides?
    One
  38. One type of RNA copies the genetic code of a DNA gene; this type is called _______ RNA, which may be abbreviated _______
    messenger       MRNA
  39. The bases found in mRNA are adenine, guanine, cytosine and ______
    uracil
  40. An mRNA molecule is synthesized from the DNA in the_____(part) of a cell, but then ,over to the cytoplasm & becomes attached to which type of cell organelle?
    Nucleus        Ribosomes
  41. A second type of RNA picks up amino acids in the cytoplasm of a cell; this type is called____RNA, which may be abbreviated _______
    transfer           tRNA
  42. A tRNA has a triplet of bases called an anticodon, which matches the _____to the mRNA & ensures that the amino acid is positioned in it's proper place in the protein
    Codon
  43. Enzymes to form______bonds between amino acids are contained in the_____to which the mRNA is attached
    Peptide           Ribosomes
  44. The expression of the genetic code that gives us our hereditary characteristics is summarized in the sequence below
    DNA --> ________ Proteins --> Hereditary characteristics ______--> Catalyze reactions to hereditary characteristics
    mRNA      Structural proteins      Enzymes
  45. Which part is transcription?    Which part is translation?
    DNA→mRNA is transcription 

    Protein is translation?
  46. -Two identical cells are produced 
    -One cell with the diploid number of chromosomes divides one
    -The cells produced are needed for the growth & repair of tissues 
    -Each cell produced has the diploid number of chromosomes
    Mitosis
  47. -4 cells are produced 
    -one cell w/ the diploid # of chromosomes divides twice
    -Each cell produced has the haploid # of chromosomes 
    -The cells produced are egg or sperm cells
    Meiosis
  48. Before meiosis or mitosis takes place, a cell is said to be in a stage called interphase. During this time, DNA replication takes place. Explain what happens in DNA replication.
    Each DNA molecule makes a copy of itself.
  49. -The centrioles organize the formation of the spindle fibers
    -The chromosomes coil up & become visible as short rods, each is a pair of chromatids connected at the centromere. 
    The nuclear membrane disappears.
    Prophase
  50. -The spindle fibers pull each set of chromosomes toward opposite poles of the cell
    -Each chromatid is now considered a separate chromosome.
    Metaphase
  51. -The pairs of chromatids line up on the equator of the cell
    -The centimeters divide.
    Anaphase
  52. -Each set of chromosomes uncoils, & nuclear membranes are re-formed
    -Cytokinesis, the division of the cytoplasm, follows
    Telophase
  53. Mitosis
    Site: 
    Reason:

    • Site: Outer layer of skin
    • Reason: To replace cells that are worn off skin surface
  54. Mitosis
    Site:
    Reason:
    • Site:Red bone marrow
    • Reason: To replace RBC's that live only 120 days or stomach lining, to replace cells destroyed by hydrochloric acid in gastric juice
  55. Human cell that does not reproduce by mitosis
    • Nerve cells or muscle cells 
    • Significance: Loss of these cells will have a permanent effect on the functioning of the organ of which they are a part of.
  56. What is the order of mitosis?
    1.Interphase   2.Prophase     3.Metaphase      4. Anaphase     5.Telophase     6. Cytokinesis
  57. The organelles in which cell respiration takes place
    Mitochondria
  58. Intracellular structures w/ specific roles in cellular functioning
    Organelles
  59. Egg & sperm cells
    Gametes
  60. Movement of molecules against a concentration gradient
    Active transport
  61. the usual # of chromosomes within a cell
    Diploid
  62. A membrane that permits only certain substances to pass through
    Selectively Permeable
  63. Control center of the cell
    Nucleus
  64. The cell division process that forms gametes
    Meiosis
  65. The process by which a stationary cell takes in small particles
    Pinocytosis
  66. Half of the usual # of chromosomes
    Haploid
  67. Diffusion of water through a membrane
    Osmosis
  68. Found between the cell membrane & the nucleus
    Cytoplasm
  69. Mode of phospholipids, cholesterol & proteins
    Cell membrane
  70. A statement that best explains the available evidence
    theory
  71. Type of cell division essential for repair of tissues
    Mitosis
  72. The process in which blood pressure creates tissue fluid
    Filtration
  73. A human cell has 46 of these
    Chromosomes
  74. Genetic code for 1 protein
    Gene
  75. Movement of molecules with or along a concentration gradient
    Diffusion
  76. Oxygen-Requiring
    Aerobic
  77. Mr. D is receiving chemotherapy for cancer. This medication inhibits the process of mitosis, which slows the production of malignant cells. Also affected, how ere, are other cells that undergo rapid mitosis.
    Mr. D may develop anemia if the ___________is affected in this way?
    Redbone marrow
  78. Intraveneous solutions are often isotonic, which means that their concentrations of water & dissolved materials are ________ as the concentrations found in the blood plasma
    The Same
  79. If distilled water mistakenly administered intravenously, the red blood cells at the site would_____ water by the process of_____ & would eventually_______
    gain         osmosis         swell
  80. Certain antibiotics that are used to treat bacterial infections inhibit the synthesis of the nucleic acids DNA & RNA. ALthough this may slow the growth of bacteria, the same processes in human cells may also be inhibited. Without SNA synthesis, what cellular process could not take place?___________
    2.Without RNA synthesis, what cellular process would not take place?__________
    • Mitosis
    • Protein synthesis
  81. The cell organelles most directly associated with cell division are the :
    Centrioles
  82. The hereditary material of cells is____, which is found in the ________of the cell
    DNA/chromosomes
  83. The major structural parts of a cell are the:
    Cell membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm
  84. The cell organelle most directly associated w/ the production of cellular proteins is
    Ribosomes
  85. The cellular transport mechanism that depend upon transporters or carrier enzymes in the cell membrane is:
    Facilitated diffusion
  86. The cellular transport mechanism that depends upon blood pressure is:
    filtration
  87. A water-salt solution with the same salt concentration as in cells is called:
    Isotonic
  88. Mitosis produces cells that have:
    The diploid # of chromosomes, 46 for people
  89. Meiosis produces cells that have:
    The haploid # of chromosomes, 23 for people
  90. The organic molecules in the cell membrane that form pores & receptor sites for hormones are:
    Proteins
  91. Meiosis is necessary to produce:
    Egg or sperm cells
  92. Mitosis is necessary for:
    Growth & repair of tissues
  93. The function of cilia is to:
    Sweep materials across the surface
  94. THE NUCLEUS OF A CELL:
    Regulates the activities of a cell by means of the genetic materials it contains
  95. The function of a golgi apparatus of a cell is to synthesize
    Carbohydrates
  96. Diffusion is defined as the movement of molecules: from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration
  97. A gene is the genetic code for one:
    Protein
  98. The complimentary base pairing of DNA is:
    A-T &    G-C
  99. The complimentary base pairing of DNA with mRNA is:
    A-U & G-C
  100. Human cells that usually do not undergo mitosis in an adult are:
    Nerve cells & muscle cells
  101. The cell organelle most directly associated with the destruction of damaged cellular proteins is the:
    Proteasome
  102. The function of the microvilli of a cell is to:
    Increase the surface area of the cell membrane
  103. In the body, the process of diffusion is responsible for the movement of :
    Oxygen & CO2
  104. A cell that has the potential to develop into several different kinds of cell is a:
    stem cell
  105. The cells lining the small intestine absorb glucose & amino acids by the process of:
    Active transport
  106. The exchange of gases between the air in the lungs & the blood
    diffusion
  107. The absorption of water by the small intestine
    Osmosis

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