Fund 2 A&P Cells

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Fund 2 A&P Cells
2013-08-01 23:31:12

Fund 2 A&P Cells
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  1. Made of phospholipids, protein & cholesterol
    -Forms the outermost boundary of a cell
    -Permits certain substances to come in or leave the cell
    -Is selectively permeable
    Cell membrane
  2. A watery solution of minerals, organic molecules & gases 
    -Found between the cell membrane & the nucleus
  3. Contains the chromosomes of a cell
    -is the control center of a cell because the genes it contains 
    -Contains the nucleolus 
    -Mature red blood cells lack this structure
  4. The 3 organic molecules that make up cell membrane
    • 1. Phospholipids 2. Proteins
    • 3. Cholesterol
  5. Provides stability for the cell membrane
  6. Form pores & transporters in the cell membrane
  7. Are antigens, in combination with oligosaccharides
  8. Permit the diffusion of lipid-soluble substances into or out of the cell.
  9. Are receptor sites for hormones
  10. Structure: An extensive series of membranous tubules that extend from the nuclear membrane to the cell membrane may be rough or smooth. 
    Function: Passageway for transport of materials within the cell
    Endoplasmic reticulum
  11. Structure: Made of proteins & ribosomal RNA
    Function: The site of protein synthesis
  12. Structure: A series of flat, membraneous sacs
    Function: Synthesize carbohydrates & secrete materials from the cell
    Golgi apparatus
  13. Structure: Double-membrane structures; the inner membrane has folds called cristae
    Function: the site of ATP production
  14. Structure: A single-membrane structures that contain tissue-digesting enzymes 
    Function: Digest warn out cell parts or ingested bacteria
  15. Structure: Two rod shaped structures perpendicular to one another
    Function: Organize the spindle fibers during cell division
  16. Structure: Short thread-like projections through the cell membrane
    Function: Sweep materials across the cell surface
  17. Structure: A single, long, thread-like projection 
    Function: Provides motility for a sperm cell
  18. Structure: Folds of the cell membrane on the free surface
    Function: Increase surface area for absorption by the cell
  19. Structure: Barrel-shaped enzymatic structure 
    Function: The site of destruction of damaged proteins
  20. Definition: The movement of molecules from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration
    Example: The movement of oxygen from the blood to the cells of the body.
  21. Definition: The diffusion of water through an semipermeable membrane.
    EX: The absorption of water by the small intestine or kidneys
  22. Definition: Diffusion of molecules, requiring carrier enzymes or transporters 
    EX: The intake of glucose by cells of the body
    Facilitated diffusion
  23. Definition: The use of energy to move molecules from an area of lesser concentration to an area of greater concentration
    EX: The absorption of amino acids or glucose by the cells of the small intestine
    Active transport
  24. Definition: Water & dissolved materials moved through a membrane from an area of higher pressure to an area of lower pressure
    EX: Blood pressure in capillaries forces plasma out to become tissue fluid
  25. Definition: The engulfing of something by a moving cell 
    Ex: The engulfing of bacteria by white blood cells
  26. Definition: The engulfing of something by stationary cell 
    Ex: the reabsorption of small proteins by cells of the kidneys tubules
  27. Has the same concentration of dissolved material as does a cell
    Isotonic solution
  28. Has higher concentration of dissolved material than does a cell
    Hypertonic solution
  29. Has lower concentration of dissolved materials than does a cell
    Hypotonic solution
  30. Makes up chromosomes of a cell, which are found in the nucleus
  31. Human cells contain how many of these DNA structures?
  32. A DNA molecule is made of ___strands of nucleotides twisted into a spiral called a _____.
    Two        Double helix
  33. The complimentary base pairing of DNA means that adenine is always paired with ________ cytosine is always paired with _______.
    Thymine           guanine
  34. A gene is a segment of DNA that is the genetic code for one ______
  35. A protein is made of the smaller molecules called________
    amino acids
  36. The DNA code for one amino acid consists of how many bases? ______
    -Therefore, the name for this code may also be the ______ code 
    -The other name for a triplet is a ______
    Three        Triplex        Codon
  37. An RNA molecule consists of how many strands of nucleotides?
  38. One type of RNA copies the genetic code of a DNA gene; this type is called _______ RNA, which may be abbreviated _______
    messenger       MRNA
  39. The bases found in mRNA are adenine, guanine, cytosine and ______
  40. An mRNA molecule is synthesized from the DNA in the_____(part) of a cell, but then ,over to the cytoplasm & becomes attached to which type of cell organelle?
    Nucleus        Ribosomes
  41. A second type of RNA picks up amino acids in the cytoplasm of a cell; this type is called____RNA, which may be abbreviated _______
    transfer           tRNA
  42. A tRNA has a triplet of bases called an anticodon, which matches the _____to the mRNA & ensures that the amino acid is positioned in it's proper place in the protein
  43. Enzymes to form______bonds between amino acids are contained in the_____to which the mRNA is attached
    Peptide           Ribosomes
  44. The expression of the genetic code that gives us our hereditary characteristics is summarized in the sequence below
    DNA --> ________ Proteins --> Hereditary characteristics ______--> Catalyze reactions to hereditary characteristics
    mRNA      Structural proteins      Enzymes
  45. Which part is transcription?    Which part is translation?
    DNA→mRNA is transcription 

    Protein is translation?
  46. -Two identical cells are produced 
    -One cell with the diploid number of chromosomes divides one
    -The cells produced are needed for the growth & repair of tissues 
    -Each cell produced has the diploid number of chromosomes
  47. -4 cells are produced 
    -one cell w/ the diploid # of chromosomes divides twice
    -Each cell produced has the haploid # of chromosomes 
    -The cells produced are egg or sperm cells
  48. Before meiosis or mitosis takes place, a cell is said to be in a stage called interphase. During this time, DNA replication takes place. Explain what happens in DNA replication.
    Each DNA molecule makes a copy of itself.
  49. -The centrioles organize the formation of the spindle fibers
    -The chromosomes coil up & become visible as short rods, each is a pair of chromatids connected at the centromere. 
    The nuclear membrane disappears.
  50. -The spindle fibers pull each set of chromosomes toward opposite poles of the cell
    -Each chromatid is now considered a separate chromosome.
  51. -The pairs of chromatids line up on the equator of the cell
    -The centimeters divide.
  52. -Each set of chromosomes uncoils, & nuclear membranes are re-formed
    -Cytokinesis, the division of the cytoplasm, follows
  53. Mitosis

    • Site: Outer layer of skin
    • Reason: To replace cells that are worn off skin surface
  54. Mitosis
    • Site:Red bone marrow
    • Reason: To replace RBC's that live only 120 days or stomach lining, to replace cells destroyed by hydrochloric acid in gastric juice
  55. Human cell that does not reproduce by mitosis
    • Nerve cells or muscle cells 
    • Significance: Loss of these cells will have a permanent effect on the functioning of the organ of which they are a part of.
  56. What is the order of mitosis?
    1.Interphase   2.Prophase     3.Metaphase      4. Anaphase     5.Telophase     6. Cytokinesis
  57. The organelles in which cell respiration takes place
  58. Intracellular structures w/ specific roles in cellular functioning
  59. Egg & sperm cells
  60. Movement of molecules against a concentration gradient
    Active transport
  61. the usual # of chromosomes within a cell
  62. A membrane that permits only certain substances to pass through
    Selectively Permeable
  63. Control center of the cell
  64. The cell division process that forms gametes
  65. The process by which a stationary cell takes in small particles
  66. Half of the usual # of chromosomes
  67. Diffusion of water through a membrane
  68. Found between the cell membrane & the nucleus
  69. Mode of phospholipids, cholesterol & proteins
    Cell membrane
  70. A statement that best explains the available evidence
  71. Type of cell division essential for repair of tissues
  72. The process in which blood pressure creates tissue fluid
  73. A human cell has 46 of these
  74. Genetic code for 1 protein
  75. Movement of molecules with or along a concentration gradient
  76. Oxygen-Requiring
  77. Mr. D is receiving chemotherapy for cancer. This medication inhibits the process of mitosis, which slows the production of malignant cells. Also affected, how ere, are other cells that undergo rapid mitosis.
    Mr. D may develop anemia if the ___________is affected in this way?
    Redbone marrow
  78. Intraveneous solutions are often isotonic, which means that their concentrations of water & dissolved materials are ________ as the concentrations found in the blood plasma
    The Same
  79. If distilled water mistakenly administered intravenously, the red blood cells at the site would_____ water by the process of_____ & would eventually_______
    gain         osmosis         swell
  80. Certain antibiotics that are used to treat bacterial infections inhibit the synthesis of the nucleic acids DNA & RNA. ALthough this may slow the growth of bacteria, the same processes in human cells may also be inhibited. Without SNA synthesis, what cellular process could not take place?___________
    2.Without RNA synthesis, what cellular process would not take place?__________
    • Mitosis
    • Protein synthesis
  81. The cell organelles most directly associated with cell division are the :
  82. The hereditary material of cells is____, which is found in the ________of the cell
  83. The major structural parts of a cell are the:
    Cell membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm
  84. The cell organelle most directly associated w/ the production of cellular proteins is
  85. The cellular transport mechanism that depend upon transporters or carrier enzymes in the cell membrane is:
    Facilitated diffusion
  86. The cellular transport mechanism that depends upon blood pressure is:
  87. A water-salt solution with the same salt concentration as in cells is called:
  88. Mitosis produces cells that have:
    The diploid # of chromosomes, 46 for people
  89. Meiosis produces cells that have:
    The haploid # of chromosomes, 23 for people
  90. The organic molecules in the cell membrane that form pores & receptor sites for hormones are:
  91. Meiosis is necessary to produce:
    Egg or sperm cells
  92. Mitosis is necessary for:
    Growth & repair of tissues
  93. The function of cilia is to:
    Sweep materials across the surface
    Regulates the activities of a cell by means of the genetic materials it contains
  95. The function of a golgi apparatus of a cell is to synthesize
  96. Diffusion is defined as the movement of molecules: from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration
  97. A gene is the genetic code for one:
  98. The complimentary base pairing of DNA is:
    A-T &    G-C
  99. The complimentary base pairing of DNA with mRNA is:
    A-U & G-C
  100. Human cells that usually do not undergo mitosis in an adult are:
    Nerve cells & muscle cells
  101. The cell organelle most directly associated with the destruction of damaged cellular proteins is the:
  102. The function of the microvilli of a cell is to:
    Increase the surface area of the cell membrane
  103. In the body, the process of diffusion is responsible for the movement of :
    Oxygen & CO2
  104. A cell that has the potential to develop into several different kinds of cell is a:
    stem cell
  105. The cells lining the small intestine absorb glucose & amino acids by the process of:
    Active transport
  106. The exchange of gases between the air in the lungs & the blood
  107. The absorption of water by the small intestine