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an explanation formulated to answer the questions being investigated (a statement that can be tested).
- 1. identify the problem
- 2. ask a question
- 3. formulate a hypothesis to answer the question.
To effectively communicate such an argument, the information must be formally presented in the proper order.
- problem identification
- question asking
- hypothesis development
- data collection and experimentation
a method whereby conclusions follow from general principles.
ex. all men are mortal or Sultan is a man
a method of arriving at general principles from specific facts.
- I observed the sun setting this evening.
- I have observed the Sun set daily, hundreds of times in my lifetime.
anything that takes up space and has mass
the smallest pars of an element that still retains all the properties of an element.
the qty of matter an object has
Protons, neutrons, electrons, atomic numbers, atomic mass, and ions
protons-- are positively charged
atomic number--the number of protons in the nucleus
neutrons -- are neutral. to find the number subtract the atomic number by the protons.
- electrons are- negatively charged
- found around the nucleus outer shells
ions--an imbalance of positive or negative charged atoms.
atomic mass--the sum of protons and electrons
two atoms combined
the basic unit of life combined elements
two or more tissues combined to perform a specific function
organs that are combined to perform a task
highest level of systems working together to within the body.
Hierarchy of the human body
- organs system
Servers as a covering and can produce secretions also is avascular.
- layers of tissue:
serves to connect different structures of the body
- blood vessels
dedicated to produce movement
three types of muscle tissue:
- skeletal, supports the bones
- cardiac, found in the heart and is involuntary
- smooth, found in walls, hollow organs, involuntary
provides structure for the brain, spinal cord, and nerves
made up of specialized cells called neurons
supports cells such as myelin sheath, and helps protect the nervous tissue
consists of the heart, blood vessels and blood
distributes oxygen, hormones, nutrients from food.
heart- contracts blood
arteries- transports blood away from the heart to capillaries
veins-blood vessels that transport blood back to the heart from the capillaries
capillaries-also transports the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
blood flow through the heart
deoxygenated blood enters through the superior and inferior vena cava
blood flows into the right atrium
during contraction, blood flows into the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle
blood is pushed into the pulmonary valve into the pulmonary artery and lungs when the right ventrical contracts.
blood picks up oxygen
oxygenated blood flows back into the pulmonary veins into the left atrium.
through the mitral valve, and into the left ventricle.
contraction of the left ventricle forces the blood through the aorta valve, then through the aorta and out to the body.
- consists of organs from the mouth to the anus.
the liver produces bile to break down fats
absorption of nutrients occurs in the small intestines
The pancreas delivers enzymes to the small intestines that aid in digestion
controls body functions
glands secrete hormones
regulates growth and metabolism
ovaries, testis, and pancreas also have endocrine functions (but still a part of other systems)
consists of skin, hair, mucus membranes, nails.
Serves to protect internal tissues from injury
waterproofs the body
helps regulate body temps.
consists of the lymph nodes, lymph vessels that carry lymph.
supports the immune system and transports white blood cells to and from the lymph nodes
Also returns fluids that have leaked back to the cardiovascular system.
consists of skeletal muscles, tendons and connect muscles to bone and ligaments that attach bones together to form joints.
consists of the brain and spinal cord
contains the CNS and the PNS.
CNS- brain and spinal cord
PNS- cranial and spinal nerves and consists of the autonomic system and sensory somatic system.
Both autonomic system and sensory somatic system
consists of the sympathetic and parasympathetic system.
- Sympathetic-fight or flight mode
- Parasympathetic- rest and repair mode
both have different effects on the body with the sensory somatic nervous system.
12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves and associated ganglia
purpose is to produce offspring
houses hormones that encourage or suppress activities within the body.
provides for air exchange and supplies tissues with oxygenated blood and removes co2.
includes: inhaled air through the nose,
- trachea- passes into both
- bronchial tubes-cilia keeps air clean and helps sweep unwanted matter and travels into the
- alveoli- tiny air sacs surrounded by capillaries (arterioles) where the exchange takes place into the blood stream when the
- diaphram and abdominal muscles contract and pulls air into the lungs by
- inspiration-the act of taking in oxygenated air
- expiration- when the diaphram relaxes and the co2 is forced out of the arterioles.
provides support and protection for the body and its organs and provides the framework to allow the body to move.
also serves as storage of minerals such as calcium and phosphorus.
Helps maintain the water and electrolyte balance within the body
regulates the acid-base balance of the blood, and removes all nitrogen-containing wastes from the body.
rhythmic contractions that propel food towards the colon and anus.
villi and micro villi
finger like projections of tissues in the small intestines that increases the surface are from which nutrients are absorbed.
tissues,cells, and organs that fight off illness and disease
four cardinal signs of inflammation
redness, swelling, pain, and heat
are pore forming proteins that are known as natural killers of that target cancer and virus cells, causing the cells to lyse.
are the body's response to a viral infection and prevent replication of the virus after 7 to 10 days.
a method of how white blood cells (leukocytes) respond to damaged body tissues
chemical messengers that are released by damaged tissues
the process of white blood cells trying to squeeze though capillary slits in response to cytokines to the cite of the damaged cells.
Factors that influence birth and fertility rates
the average number of children a woman will have during her child bearing years for 15 to 44.
- developed countries replacement rate is 2.1
- while less developed countries are 2.3
- factors that affect fertility rates:
- religion, culture, economy, employment, government, education, literacy, infant mortality, abortions, and accessible family planning.
population growth and decline includes:
crude birth rates
crude death rates
crude birth rate- is defined by the number of births per 1000 people per yr.
crude death rates- is defined by the number of deaths per 1000 people a yr.
immigration- is the act of an individual moving into a region
emigration- is the act of an individual moving out of region.
- changes in population is also affected by:
- economy, politics, medical care, natural resources, food, land, water, and climate.
Levels of taxonomy
domain- (broad level)archaea, eubacteria, eukarya
kingdom- (eukarya) animalia, fungi, plantae, and protista
phylum-all animals with spinal cords)
class- families of a type of animal (mammals)
order- family size of animals (meat eating)
family-of a specific species (brn, blk, spectaled bear)
genus- a specific class (brown bear, blk bear)
species- a specific breed (brown bear)
occurs when some individuals of a species are better able to survive in their environment and reproduce than others. (survival of the fittest)
contain sequences of nitrogenous bases called codes, which are information that controls the heredity of particular traits.
changes in DNA that affect the way a gene functions because of some alleles that may have one or more mutations.
mutations and combinations of alleles that affect some individuals and are better able to survive and adapt to their environment, also known as variations.
Nucleic acids a chain of nuclotides
stores and transmits hereditary information
- DNA- deoxyribonucleic acids
- RNA- ribonucleic acid
made up of:
pentose- a type of sugar
phospate group- a backbone of DNA and RNA adjoining bases.
nitrogenous base- a molecule of DNA and RNA that encodes the genetic information in cells.
5 types of nitrogenous bases found in both DNA and RNA
DNA is a double helix of nucleotides:
- RNA is a single strand of nucleotides:
Purines and pyrimidines
Purines have two rings of adenine and guanine
pyrimidines have one ring of thymine and cytosine
A bacterial cell that contains the following organelles from the outside to within:
- Flagella- long whip like that promotes cellular movement
- cell wall
- cytoplasm- rich protein gel like substance
- nucleoid- condensed DNA that contains genes
- Plasmids-small circular portions of DNA
- Ribosomes- free floating and manufacture proteins
Contains organelles from the outside in:
- Plasma membrane-semipermeable
- cytoplasm-gel like substance
- endoplasmic reticulum- tubular transport (smooth and rough with ribosomes)
- golgi apparatus- packages and ships proteins in the cell.
- vesicles- small membrane bounded sacs transports substances outside the cell
- Mitochondria- produces ATP (adenosine triphospate) and includes cristae an enzyme that converts sugar into ATP.
- mircotubules- includes spindles that help organize and segregate chromosomes.
- nucleus-contains the cells genetic material
- nucleolus- produces ribosomes
vacoules- basic unit that can hold various components
lysosomes- digestive enzyemes
peroxisome-rids body of toxic components
Eukaryotic plant cells
contains all of the same organelles and includes:
- chloroplasts-contains chlorophyll
- chlorophyll- allows the captures of sunlight to produce glucose
- plant cells need both mitochondria and chloroplasts
- larger vacoules- contains water to maintain proper pressure
- solid cell walls- acts as a barrier and gives the cell its structure
- contains genes that produces proteins
- genes sends messages within the cell to make a code for a specific protein (ribosomes)
- Ribosomes get translated from RNA to DNA into a specific code of amino acid
process of differentiation occurs in cells in developing embryos or adluts.
- Cells that divide, but remain undifferntiated
- are stem cells (totipotent, plurpotent, and multipotent cells)
the process carried out by green plants, algae, and certain bacteria.
chloroplast, co2, h2o, and sunlight produces ATP and releases o2 in the process
Autotrophs and heterotrophs
autotrophs- are organisms that are algae to produce their own foods (plants)
heterotrophs- organisms that cannot produce their own foods (animals)
uses glucose and oxygen to produce co2 as a bye product.
a complete set of DNA for an individual that contains genes
Mutations in DNA
mutations in the genome can occur during replication of a gene or a mutagen that induces mutations.
synthesis of the complementary strand of DNA by proof reading the new strand as it is being synthesized. If it notices a a mispairing of bases, it replaces it.
When DNA polymerase does not catch an error of a base pairing, mismatch repair scans over the strands after it has been made and replaces the error. If the error is missed, the DNA is altered.
Damages to DNA due to the environment, excision repair inspects sections of DNA for these types of damages and tries to cut out the damaged sequence codon on the strand and allows DNA polymerase to glue it back together.
Genotypes and phenotypes
genotypes-underlying genetic makeup or code
phenotypes- physical expressions of genetic traits.
when the dominant recessive genotype interact to produce a mixed phenotype
waves of radiation that are characterized by electric and magnetic fields.
members of a spectrum, distinguished by wavelengths are divided into bands of wavelengths from short to long:
- ultraviolet wave
- radio waves
are divided by color bands from long to short
kinetic energy (KE)
the amount of energy associated with an object motion.
Potential Energy (PE)
stored energy in an object
PE=mgh, where m=mass g=gravity h=height
Law of conservation of energy
the sum of KE plus PE equals the total energy.
energy that is not lost, but rather transferred back and forth between KE and PE. An increase in KE will decrease PE, but the total amount of energy will be the same.
atoms with the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons.
How many protons would a positively charged isotope ion of o-18 have?
Oxygen has 8 protons and 8 electrons so, the answer would be 8.
How many protons would a negatively charged isotope ion of c-14 have? carbon only has 6 protons and 6 electrons so, the answer would be 6
increase the rates by lowering the activation energy.
control the rate of chemical reactions, or reactions in which atoms react to a stable state. Reactions may be increased by promotors or reduced by inhibitors.
Acidic solutions and basic solutions
pH=-log(1*10 neg #)
acidic are more H+ and lower pH numbers less than 7
Basic are more [oh] and higher ph greater than 7
H2O is neutral
- Litmus paper turns red when it is acidic
- Litmus paper turns blue when its basic
6 being acidic
7 being neutral
8 being Basic
[H+] is 10 to neg 1 through 10 to neg 14
[OH-] is 10 to neg 13 through 10 to neg 0.
catalysts increase reaction rates by lowering the activation energy.
oxidation-involves electron donation to produce more positive ions.
Reduction-involves electron acceptance to produce a more negative ion.
ex. chemical reactions that happen everyday of our lives.
Acids and bases
Acids- any compound with a hydrogen ion activity greater than water (ph< 7).
Base- any compound with a hydrogen ion activity less than water (ph>7).
both produce salt +water.
Ph neutralization is an important oxidation-reduction reaction.
* Water is characterized by a maximum density oat 4 degrees celcius
* melting point of water is 0 celcius
* boiling point of water is 100 degrees celcius
* Ice is less dense than liquid water
* water dissolves solids, liquids and gases into aqueous solutions
* waters polarity results in high surface tension and adhesion.
is an alternately used to express temperature.
* Is a metric temperature scale defined by an absolute zero reference point (O K = -273 degrees celcius)
*Kelvin temps are standarized by the triple point of water ( the temp and pressure at which water will coexist as a solide, liquid and gas [273.16 K = 0.01 degrees celcius])
the energy required to raise one unit of mass of a substance by 1 degrees celcius.
High heat of evaporation
the amount of heat necessary to cause a phase transition between a liquid and a gas.
Liquids, gases and solids
Liquids- exists in high temperatures and high pressures.
Gases- exists in high temperatures and low pressures.
Solids- exists in high pressures and low temperatures.
liquids have the highest density of all three.
Liquids, gases and solids
*liquids have a fixed volume and changing state
*gases have a changing volume and a changing shape
*solids have a fixed shape and volume
related to the energy needed to cause a phase transition at a fixed temperature.
ex. more energy is needed to change a liquid to a gas
an alteration of the physical state between a solid, liquid, and gas.
the flow of energy due to a difference in temperature
a liquid is often achieved due to the high heat, low humidity and fast movement of the surrounding air mass.
ex. the liquid to gas transition through evaporation or vaporization requires the addition of heat. H=m*L
ex. gas to liquid transition through condensation, requires a subtraction of heat H=-m*L
occurs through a phase transition from a liquid to a gas.
Saturated hydorcarbons known as alkanes
the most basic structure of hydrocarbons that are composed of single bonds.
Unsaturated hydorcarbons known as alkenes and alkynes
have one or more double or triple bonds between carbon.
Double bonds are alkenes CnH2n
triple bonds are alkynes CnH2n-2
produces immune cells
Enzyme activity is driven by which internal factor
equals the number of protons and electrons added together