teas science

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teas science
2013-08-10 14:46:01
teas science

teas science
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  1. Hypothesis
    an explanation formulated to answer the questions being investigated (a statement that can be tested).

    • 1. identify the problem
    • 2. ask a question
    • 3. formulate a hypothesis to answer the question.
  2. Scientific arguments.

    To effectively communicate such an argument, the information must be formally presented in the proper order.
    • problem identification
    • question asking
    • hypothesis development
    • data collection and experimentation
    • analysis
    • conclusion
  3. Deductive reasoning
    a method whereby conclusions follow from general principles.

    ex. all men are mortal or Sultan is a man
  4. Inductive reasoning
    a method of arriving at general principles from specific facts.

    • ex.
    • I observed the sun setting this evening.
    • I have observed the Sun set daily, hundreds of times in my lifetime.
  5. Matter
    anything that takes up space and has mass
  6. Atom
    the smallest pars of an element that still retains all the properties of an element.
  7. Mass
    the qty of matter an object has
  8. Protons, neutrons, electrons, atomic numbers, atomic mass, and ions
    protons-- are positively charged

    atomic number--the number of protons in the nucleus

    neutrons -- are neutral. to find the number subtract the atomic number by the protons.

    • electrons are- negatively charged
    • found around the nucleus outer shells

    ions--an imbalance of positive or negative charged atoms.

    atomic mass--the sum of protons and electrons
  9. Molecule
    two atoms combined
  10. cells
    the basic unit of life combined elements
  11. tissues
    combined cells
  12. organ
    two or more tissues combined to perform a specific function
  13. organ system
    organs that are combined to perform a task
  14. organism
    highest level of systems working together to within the body.
  15. Hierarchy of the human body
    • Atoms
    • molecules
    • cells 
    • tissues
    • organs system
    • organism
  16. Epithelial tissue
    Servers as a covering and can produce secretions also is avascular.

    • layers of tissue:
    • simple
    • stratified
    • squamous
    • cubodial
    • columnar
  17. connective tissue
    serves to connect different structures of the body

    is vascular

    • types:
    • bone
    • cartilage
    • adipose
    • blood vessels
  18. Muscle Tissue
    dedicated to produce movement

    three types of muscle tissue:

    • skeletal,  supports the bones
    • cardiac, found in the heart and is involuntary
    • smooth, found in walls, hollow organs, involuntary
  19. Nervous tissue
    provides structure for the brain, spinal cord, and nerves

    made up of specialized cells called neurons

    supports cells such as myelin sheath, and helps protect the nervous tissue
  20. Circulatory system
    consists of the heart, blood vessels and blood

    distributes oxygen, hormones, nutrients from food.


    heart- contracts blood

    arteries- transports blood away from the heart to capillaries

    veins-blood vessels that transport blood back to the heart from the capillaries

    capillaries-also transports the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
  21. blood flow through the heart
    deoxygenated blood enters through the superior and inferior vena cava

    blood flows into the right atrium

    during contraction, blood flows into the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle

    blood is pushed into the pulmonary valve into the pulmonary artery and lungs when the right ventrical contracts.

    blood picks up oxygen

    oxygenated blood flows back into the pulmonary veins into the left atrium.

    through the mitral valve, and into the left ventricle.

    contraction of the left ventricle forces the blood through the aorta valve, then through the aorta and out to the body.
  22. digestive system
    • consists of organs from the mouth to the anus.
    • includes:

    the liver produces bile to break down fats

    absorption of nutrients occurs in the small intestines

    The pancreas delivers enzymes to the small intestines that aid in digestion
  23. Endocrine system
    controls body functions

    glands secrete hormones

    regulates growth and metabolism

    ovaries, testis, and pancreas also have endocrine functions (but still a part of other systems)
  24. Integumentary system
    consists of skin, hair, mucus membranes, nails.

    Serves to protect internal tissues from injury

    waterproofs the body

    helps regulate body temps.
  25. Lymphatic system
    consists of the lymph nodes, lymph vessels that carry lymph.

    supports the immune system and transports white blood cells to and from the lymph nodes

    Also returns fluids that have leaked back to the cardiovascular system.
  26. Muscular system
    consists of skeletal muscles, tendons and connect muscles to bone and ligaments that attach bones together to form joints.
  27. Nervous tissue
    consists of the brain and spinal cord

    contains the CNS and the PNS.

    CNS- brain and spinal cord

    PNS- cranial and spinal nerves and consists of the autonomic system and sensory somatic system.
  28. Both autonomic system and sensory somatic system
    consists of the sympathetic and parasympathetic system.

    • Sympathetic-fight or flight mode
    • Parasympathetic- rest and repair mode

    both have different effects on the body with the sensory somatic nervous system.

    12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves and associated ganglia
  29. Reproductive system
    purpose is to produce offspring

    houses hormones that encourage or suppress activities within the body.
  30. Respiratory system
    provides for air exchange and supplies tissues with oxygenated blood and removes co2.

    includes: inhaled air through the nose,

    • trachea- passes into both 
    • bronchial tubes-cilia keeps air clean and helps sweep unwanted matter and travels into the 
    • alveoli- tiny air sacs surrounded by capillaries (arterioles) where the exchange takes place into the blood stream when the 
    • diaphram and abdominal muscles contract and pulls air into the lungs by
    • inspiration-the act of taking in oxygenated air
    • expiration- when the diaphram relaxes and the co2 is forced out of the arterioles.
  31. Skeletal system
    provides support and protection for the body and its organs and provides the framework to allow the body to move.

    also serves as storage of minerals such as calcium and phosphorus.
  32. Urinary system
    Helps maintain the water and electrolyte balance within the body

    regulates the acid-base balance of the blood, and removes all nitrogen-containing wastes from the body.
  33. peristalis
    rhythmic contractions that propel food towards the colon and anus.
  34. villi and micro villi
    finger like projections of tissues in the small intestines that increases the surface are from which nutrients are absorbed.
  35. Immune system
    tissues,cells, and organs that fight off illness and disease
  36. four cardinal signs of inflammation
    redness, swelling, pain, and heat
  37. Perforins
    are pore forming proteins that are known as natural killers of that target cancer and virus cells, causing the cells to lyse.
  38. Interferons
    are the body's response to a viral infection and prevent replication of the virus after 7 to 10 days.
  39. chemotaxis
    a method of how white blood cells (leukocytes) respond to damaged body tissues
  40. cytokines
    chemical messengers that are released by damaged tissues
  41. Diapedesis
    the process of white blood cells trying to squeeze though capillary slits in response to cytokines to the cite of the damaged cells.
  42. Factors that influence birth and fertility rates
    the average number of children a woman will have during her child bearing years for 15 to 44.

    • developed countries replacement rate is 2.1
    • while less developed countries are 2.3

    • factors that affect fertility rates:
    • religion, culture, economy, employment, government, education, literacy, infant mortality, abortions, and accessible family planning.
  43. population growth and decline includes:

    crude birth rates
    crude death rates
    crude birth rate- is defined by the number of births per 1000 people per yr.

    crude death rates- is defined by the number of deaths per 1000 people a yr.

    immigration- is the act of an individual moving into a region 

    emigration- is the act of an individual moving out of region.

    • changes in population is also affected by:
    • economy, politics, medical care, natural resources, food, land, water, and climate.
  44. Levels of taxonomy
    domain- (broad level)archaea, eubacteria, eukarya 

    kingdom- (eukarya) animalia, fungi, plantae, and protista

    phylum-all animals with spinal cords)

    class- families of a type of animal (mammals)

    order- family size of animals (meat eating)

    family-of a specific species (brn, blk, spectaled bear)

    genus- a specific class (brown bear, blk bear)

    species- a specific breed (brown bear)
  45. Natural selection
    occurs when some individuals of a species are better able to survive in their environment and reproduce than others. (survival of the fittest)
  46. genes
    contain sequences of nitrogenous bases called codes, which are information that controls the heredity of particular traits.
  47. mutations
    changes in DNA that affect the way a gene functions because of some alleles that may have one or more mutations.
  48. Adaptation
    mutations and combinations of alleles that affect some individuals and are better able to survive and adapt to their environment, also known as variations.
  49. Nucleic acids a chain of nuclotides
    stores and transmits hereditary information

    • DNA- deoxyribonucleic acids
    • RNA- ribonucleic acid
  50. nucleotides
    made up of:

    pentose- a type of sugar

    phospate group- a backbone of DNA and RNA adjoining bases.

    nitrogenous base- a molecule of DNA and RNA that encodes the genetic information in cells.
  51. 5 types of nitrogenous bases found in both DNA and RNA
    DNA is a double helix of nucleotides:

    • adenine
    • cytosine
    • guanine
    • thymine

    • RNA is a single strand of nucleotides:
    • adenine
    • cytosine
    • guanine
    • uracil
  52. Purines and pyrimidines
    Purines have two rings of adenine and guanine

    pyrimidines have one ring of thymine and cytosine
  53. Prokaryotic cells
    A bacterial cell that contains the following organelles from the outside to within:

    • Flagella- long whip like that promotes cellular movement
    • cell wall
    • cytoplasm- rich protein gel like substance
    • nucleoid- condensed DNA that contains genes
    • Plasmids-small circular portions of DNA
    • Ribosomes- free floating and manufacture proteins
  54. Eukaryotic cell
    Contains organelles from the outside in:

    • Plasma membrane-semipermeable 
    • cytoplasm-gel like substance
    • endoplasmic reticulum- tubular transport (smooth and rough with ribosomes)
    • golgi apparatus- packages and ships proteins in the cell.
    • vesicles- small membrane bounded sacs transports substances outside the cell
    • Mitochondria- produces ATP (adenosine triphospate) and includes cristae an enzyme that converts sugar into ATP.
    • mircotubules- includes spindles that help organize and segregate chromosomes.
    • nucleus-contains the cells genetic  material
    • nucleolus- produces ribosomes
  55. vesicles

    vacoules- basic unit that can hold various components

    lysosomes- digestive enzyemes

    peroxisome-rids body of toxic components
  56. Eukaryotic plant cells
    contains all of the same organelles and includes:

    • chloroplasts-contains chlorophyll
    • chlorophyll- allows the captures of sunlight to produce glucose 
    • plant cells need both mitochondria and chloroplasts 
    • larger vacoules- contains water to maintain proper pressure
    • solid cell walls- acts as a barrier and gives the cell its structure
  57. ChromosomeS
    • contains genes that produces proteins
    • genes sends messages within the cell to make a code for a specific protein (ribosomes)
    • Ribosomes get translated from RNA to DNA into a specific code of amino acid
  58. cell Differnetiation
    process of differentiation occurs in cells in developing embryos or adluts.

    • Cells that divide, but remain undifferntiated
    • are stem cells (totipotent, plurpotent, and multipotent cells)
  59. Photosynthesis
    the process carried out by green plants, algae, and certain bacteria.

    chloroplast, co2, h2o, and sunlight produces ATP and releases o2 in the process
  60. Autotrophs and heterotrophs
    autotrophs- are organisms that are algae to produce their own foods (plants)

    heterotrophs- organisms that cannot produce their own foods (animals)
  61. Cellular respiration

    c6h12+6o2= 6c02+6h2o+energy
    uses glucose and oxygen to produce co2 as a bye product.
  62. Genome
    a complete set of DNA for an individual that contains genes
  63. Mutations in DNA
    mutations in the genome can occur during replication of a gene or a mutagen that induces mutations.
  64. DNA polymerase
    synthesis of the complementary strand of DNA by proof reading the new strand as it is being synthesized.  If it notices a a mispairing of bases, it replaces it.
  65. Mismatch repair
    When DNA polymerase does not catch an error of a base pairing, mismatch repair scans over the strands after it has been made and replaces the error.  If the error is missed, the DNA is altered.
  66. Excision repair
    Damages to DNA due to the environment, excision repair inspects sections of DNA for these types of damages and tries to cut out the damaged sequence codon on the strand and allows DNA polymerase to glue it back together.
  67. Genotypes and phenotypes
    genotypes-underlying genetic makeup or code

    phenotypes- physical expressions of genetic traits.
  68. Incomplete dominance
    when the dominant recessive genotype interact to produce a mixed phenotype
  69. Electromagnetic waves

    waves of radiation that are characterized by electric and magnetic fields.
    members of a spectrum, distinguished by wavelengths are divided into bands of wavelengths from short to long:

    • gamma
    • x-ray
    • ultraviolet wave
    • visible
    • microwave
    • radio waves
  70. visible wavelengths

    are divided by color bands from long to short
    • red
    • orange
    • yellow
    • green
    • blue
    • indingo
    • violet
  71. kinetic energy (KE)

    • m=mass
    • v=velocity(squared)

    the amount of energy associated with an object motion.
  72. Potential Energy (PE)
    stored energy in an object

    PE=mgh, where m=mass g=gravity h=height
  73. Law of conservation of energy
    the sum of KE plus PE equals the total energy.

     energy that is not lost, but rather transferred back and forth between KE and PE. An increase in KE will decrease PE, but the total amount of energy will be the same.
  74. Isotopes
    atoms with the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons.


    How many protons would a positively charged isotope ion of o-18 have?

    Oxygen has 8 protons and 8 electrons so, the answer would be 8. 

    How many protons would a negatively charged isotope ion of c-14 have?  carbon only has 6 protons and 6 electrons so, the answer would be 6
  75. Catalysts
    increase the rates by lowering the activation energy.

    control the rate of chemical reactions, or reactions in which atoms react to a stable state. Reactions may be increased by promotors or reduced by inhibitors.
  76. Acidic solutions and basic solutions

    pH=-log(1*10 neg #)
    acidic are more H+ and lower pH numbers less than 7

    Basic are more [oh] and higher ph greater than 7

    H2O is neutral

    • Litmus paper turns red when it is acidic 
    • Litmus paper turns blue when its basic
  77. Ph scale

    6 being acidic
    7 being neutral
    8 being Basic
    [H+] is 10 to neg 1 through 10 to neg 14

    [OH-] is 10 to neg 13 through 10 to neg 0.
  78. Activation energy
    catalysts increase reaction rates by lowering the activation energy.
  79. Oxidation-Reduction
    oxidation-involves electron donation to produce more positive ions.

    Reduction-involves electron acceptance to produce a more negative ion.

    ex. chemical reactions that happen everyday of our lives.

    • combustion
    • photosynthesis
    • metabolism
  80. Acids and bases
    Acids- any compound with a hydrogen ion activity greater than water (ph< 7).

    Base- any compound with a hydrogen ion activity less than water (ph>7).

    both produce salt +water.

    Ph neutralization is an important oxidation-reduction reaction.
  81. Water
    * Water is characterized by a maximum density oat 4 degrees celcius

    * melting point of water is 0 celcius

    * boiling point of water is 100 degrees celcius

    * Ice is less dense than liquid water

    * water dissolves solids, liquids and gases into aqueous solutions

    * waters polarity results in high surface tension and adhesion.
  82. Kelvin Scale
    is an alternately used to express temperature.

    * Is a metric temperature scale defined by an absolute zero reference point (O K = -273 degrees celcius)

    *Kelvin temps are standarized by the triple point of water ( the temp and pressure at which water will coexist as a solide, liquid and gas [273.16 K = 0.01 degrees celcius])
  83. Specific heat
    the energy required to raise one unit of mass of a substance by 1 degrees celcius.
  84. High heat of evaporation
    the amount of heat necessary to cause a phase transition between a liquid and a gas.
  85. Liquids, gases and solids
    Liquids- exists in high temperatures and high pressures.

    Gases- exists in high temperatures and low pressures.

    Solids- exists in high pressures and low temperatures.

    liquids have the highest density of all three.
  86. Liquids, gases and solids
    *liquids have a fixed volume and changing state

    *gases have a changing volume and a changing shape

    *solids have a fixed shape and volume
  87. Latent heat
    related to the energy needed to cause a phase transition at a fixed temperature.

    ex. more energy is needed to change a liquid to a gas
  88. Phase transition
    an alteration of the physical state between a solid, liquid, and gas.
  89. Heat
    the flow of energy due to a difference in temperature
  90. Evaporation
    a liquid is often achieved due to the high heat, low humidity and fast movement of the surrounding air mass.

    ex. the liquid to gas transition through evaporation or vaporization requires the addition of heat. H=m*L

    ex. gas to liquid transition through condensation, requires a subtraction of heat H=-m*L
  91. Vaporization
    occurs through a phase transition from a liquid to a gas.
  92. Saturated hydorcarbons known as alkanes
    the most basic structure of hydrocarbons that are composed of single bonds.

    formula- CnH2n+2
  93. Unsaturated hydorcarbons known as alkenes and alkynes
    have one or more double or triple bonds between carbon.

    Double bonds are alkenes CnH2n

    triple bonds are alkynes CnH2n-2
  94. Bone marrow
    produces immune cells
  95. Enzyme activity is driven by which internal factor
    amino-acid structure
  96. atomic mass
    equals the number of protons and electrons added together
  97. liquid state