Pharmacy Technician

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Pharmacy Technician
2013-10-05 16:28:00
Pharm Tech

Glossary from Pharmacy Technician Book
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  1. Accuracy
    The degree of truth of a measurement.
  2. Adulteration
    The tampering or contamination of a product or substance.
  3. Adverse Effect
    A harmful or undesired side effect resulting from the use of medication.
  4. Aerobic
    Needing oxygen to survive.
  5. Allegation
    Method to find the amount of each ingredient needed to make a mixture of a given quantity or concentration.
  6. Ampule
    A small sealed vial which is used to contain and preserve a drug, usually a liquid commonly made of glass; abbreviated amp.
  7. Anaerobic
    The ability to survive without oxygen.
  8. Anatomy
    The study of the structures of the body.
  9. Antibiotic
    A substance that has the ability to destroy or interfere with the development of a living organism.
  10. Apothecary
    An old English system of weight and volume measures.
  11. Application Software
    Any software that is used by a facility in the administration of care.
  12. Arabic Numeral
    The ten digits (0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8, and 9); the standard conventional numbers.
  13. Arteries
    The large vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood.
  14. American Association of Pharmacy Technicians (AAPT)
    A nonprofit organization specifically for pharmacy technicians in the offering of CE, information, and networking opportunities with fellow pharmacy technicians nationwide; established 1979.
  15. Average Wholesale Price (AWP) 
    Price used by pharmacy in the pricing of prescriptions to third party insurance companies; the AWp can be found in the Redbook. 
  16. Bactericidal 
    An agent that kills microorganisms. 
  17. Bacteriostatic
    An agent that inhibits but does not kill microorganisms. 
  18. Blood
    A liquid tissue that is responsible for life, growth, and health; it contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets suspended in blood plasma. 
  19. Broad-Spectrum Antibiotic
    A drug that has an antibacterial spectrum against a wide variety of organisms.
  20. Buccal
    Located between the gum and the skin of the cheek. 
  21. Capsule 
    A solid dosage form in which the drug is enclosed within either a hard or soft soluble container or shell usually made of gelatin; abbreviated cap. 
  22. Cardiac Muscle 
    Found exclusively in the heart, it is responsible for pumping blood throughout the body.
  23. Case Law
    A system of law based on judges' decisions and legal precedents.
  24. Centi-
    The metric system prefix indicating one-hundredth. 
  25. Centigrade
    The standard metric system temperature scale of 100 degrees, with 0 being the freezing point and 100 being the boiling point of water. 
  26. Central Nervous System 
    The part of the nervous system that contains the brain and spinal cord; it is responsible for controlling all nervous function. 
  27. Centralized Pharmacy
    A pharmacy that provides its services from one location. 
  28. Clean Room
    Bacteria-free room used in the preparation of sterile products such as IV admixtures. 
  29. Code of Ethics
    A set of standards and principles that guide professionals in their functions. 
  30. Common Fraction
    An expressed number of parts of a whole. 
  31. Common Law
    A system of law derived from the decision of judges rather than statute. 
  32. Compound
    A substance made up of two or more elements. 
  33. Compromised Host
    A person whose normal defense system is impaired and who is more susceptible to disease. 
  34. Computer Applications
    The hardware and software utilized to administer healthcare in a specific setting. 
  35. Computer Hardware
    The physical components of a computer system; includes the mouse, keyboard, and monitor. 
  36. Concentration
    Measure of how much of a given substance there is mixed with another substance; most frequently limited to homogeneous solutions, where it refers to the amount of solute in the solvent. 
  37. Contract Law 
    A system of law that binds parties to a set of agreements. 
  38. Controlled Substances 
    Any medication that has the potential for abuse or dependency liability, as defined by the Controlled Substances Act by 1972. 
  39. Cream 
    Topical preparation usually for application to the skin or to mucus, such as those of the rectum or vagina. 
  40. Criminal Law
    The body of law that defines criminal offenses against the public. 
  41. Cubic Centimeter 
    A measure of volume equal to a one cube centimeter on a side; often used in the pas interchangeably with milliliter, avoid using this unit because of the possibility of medication error. 
  42. Daily Dose
    Total amount of drug administered in a 24-hour period. 
  43. Decentralized Pharmacy 
    A pharmacy that has a main location from which it provides services, but also has services in the patient care areas. 
  44. Decimal Fraction
    A decimal number with a value less than one and greater than zero; there is a zero to the left of the decimal point (e.g., 0.25) 
  45. Decimal Number
    A numerator expressed in numerals with a decimal point placed to designate the value of the denominator, which is understood to be ten or a power of ten (100, 1,000, etc.) 
  46. Delayed Release 
    Formulation used in tablets or capsules to delay release of the drug.
  47. Denominator 
    The part of a fraction that is below the fraction bar and that functions as the divisor of the numerator. 
  48. Diluent
    Agent used to increase the bulk weight or volume of a dosage form. 
  49. Dilution
    Process of making something less concentrated. 
  50. Direct Purchasing 
    When a pharmacy purchases pharmaceutical supplies directly from the manufacturer. 
  51. Dosage
    Measured portion of medicine; also called dose. 
  52. Dosage Form 
    The physical form of a dose of medication given for administration (for example, capsule, solution, cream). 
  53. Dose
    The quantity of medication given to a patient as prescribed by a physician. 
  54. Drug Class
    A group of medications that have the same mechanism of action or chemical properties used to treat a specific disease/diseases.
  55. Drug Classification
    A group of medications with the same or similar characteristics.
  56. Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA)
    A regulatory body that oversees the manufacturing and distribution of controlled substances; tt also focuses on major trafficking of illegal drugs.
  57. Drug Utilization Review (DUR)
    The process used by the retail pharmacy system to compare the existing treatment to a new treatment's compatibility.
  58. Drug Wholesaler
    A third party that purchases medications directly from the manufacturer and sells it to the pharmacy.
  59. Effervescent
    The escape of gas from an aqueous solution.
  60. Elixir
    A sweet flavored liquid usually containing a small amount of alcohol and medication to be taken by mouth in order to mask an unpleasant taste; abbreviated elix.
  61. Emulsifying Agent
    A compound that facilitates the formation of an emulsion.
  62. Emulsion
    A suspension of small globules of one liquid in a second liquid with which the first will not mix; an emulsion may be oil-in-water or water-in-oil.
  63. Endocrine System
    A collection of glands that secrete hormones which regulate the body's function.
  64. Enema
    The introduction of a liquid or form through the anus used for treatment or diagnosis.
  65. Enteric-Coated (EC)
    A barrier applied to oral medications that controls the location in the digestive system where it is absorbed.
  66. Ethics
    The study of values, morals, or morality, including concepts of good and evil, right and wrong.
  67. Excipient
    An inactive substances used as a carrier for the active ingredients of a medication.
  68. Extended-Release
    Used in pills, tablets, or capsules to dissolves slowly and release a drug over time.
  69. Extremes
    The two outside terms in a proportion
  70. Fahrenheit
    Standard household system temperature scale.
  71. Film-Coated
    A barrier applied to oral medication that facilitates swallowing and masks unpleasant tastes.
  72. Filter Needle
    A needle that has a filter that will take out anything greater than five microns; used in the removal of ampule contents; also available area filter straws for the same purpose.
  73. Flow Rate
    The amount of fluid that flows in a given time.
  74. Fluid Ounce
    The measure of volume in the apothecary system equal to 28.57 mL.
  75. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
    Governmental regulatory agency whose purpose is to ensure safety and efficacy of all drugs currently on the market.
  76. Formulary
    A list of drugs that can be ordered, stocked, and administered at a given facility; also a term used fro insurance companies as far as what medications they will pay for.
  77. Fraction
    An expression of division; a number that is a portion or part of a whole (e.g., 2/3)
  78. Fraud
    The intentional deceit to deprive another or his or her money, property, or rights.
  79. Gallon
    Household measure of volume equal to eight pints.
  80. Gastrointestinal System
    System made up of the stomach and large intestines; it is responsible for absorbing nutrients into the body.
  81. Gel (Jelly) 
    Jelly like material that can have properties ranging from soft and weak to hard and tough.
  82. General Ledger
    The document that keeps a record for all debits and credits of a business.
  83. Generic Name
    A general name given to a medication, which is not proprietary.
  84. Grain
    Standard unit of weight in the apothecary system; 1 grain (gr) is equal to 64.82 mg.
  85. Gram
    Standard unit of weight in the metic system; 1 gram (g) is equal to 1,000 mg.
  86. Granule
    Wetted powders allowed to dry and then ground into course pieces having a particle size larger than powders.
  87. Heart
    Made of cardiac muscle, this organ is responsible for pumping deoxygenated blood to the lungs and oxygenated blood to the rest of the body.
  88. HEPA Filter
    Filtration system used in laminar flow hoods to remove any particles less than 0.2 to 0.3 microns to ensure a steril (bacteria-free) work area.
  89. Hydro-Alcoholic
    Solvent containing water and alcohol.
  90. Hydrophilic
    Anything mixable with water.
  91. Hypertonic
    Having an osmostic pressure greater than human plasma; greater than 0.9% NaCl
  92. ac
    before meals
  93. ad
    right ear
  94. am
  95. as
    left ear
  96. ASAP
    as soon as possible
  97. au
    both ears
  98. bid
    twice a day
  99. c
  100. cc
    cubic centimeter (same as ml or milliliter)
  101. d
  102. DAW
    Dispense as written
  103. dc
  104. gtt
  105. h
  106. hs
    at bedtime
  107. i
  108. ii
  109. iii
  110. iv
  111. od
    right eye
  112. opth
    opthalmic (for the eye)
  113. os
    left eye
  114. otic
    for the ear
  115. ou
    each eye
  116. nte
    not to exceed
  117. p
  118. pc
    after meals
  119. pm
  120. po
    by mouth
  121. pr
    in rectum
  122. prn
    as needed
  123. pv
    in vagina
  124. q
  125. qd
    every day or daily
  126. q4d
    every four years
  127. qid
    four times a day
  128. qod
    Every other day
  129. qs
    quantity sufficient or to make
  130. qsad
    add quantity to make specific volume
  131. s
  132. ss
  133. sig
  134. sl
    under the tongue
  135. stat
    at once or now
  136. supp
  137. tid
    three times a day
  138. ud
    as directed
  139. Hypotonic
    Having an osmotic pressure less than human plasma; less than 0.9%.
  140. Improper Fraction
    A fraction in which the numerator is greater than or equal to the denominator.
  141. Indication
    The intended use of a medication; what it treats.
  142. Infusion
    The introduction of a solution into a vein over a prolonger period of time.
  143. Inhalation
    Medication to be taken by drawing in of air (or other gases), as in breathing.
  144. Inhaler
    A device used for inhalation; MDI means metered does inhaler.
  145. Injection
    A method of putting liquid into the body, usually with a hollow needle and a syringe which is pierced through the skin to a sufficient depth for the material to be forced into the body.
  146. Integumentary System
    Also known as the skin, it is responsible for protecting the internal structures from the external environment.
  147. International Unit 
    Standard amount of a drug required to produce a certain effect. 
  148. Inventory Turns
    The number of times the entire inventory was purchased over a certain period of time, usually one year. 
  149. Isotonic 
    Term applied to two solutions with equal solute concentrations having the same or equal osmotic pressure; having an osmotic pressure equal to that of human plasma; equal to 0.9% NaCl. 
  150. Kilo-
    Metric system prefix indicating one-thousand. 
  151. Laminar Flow Hood (LFH) 
    Hood used in the preparation of sterile products such as IV admixtures; two types: horizontal for general preparation and vertical for chemo drugs. 
  152. Law
    A rule of conduct or procedure established by custom, agreement, or authority. 
  153. Legal Precedent 
    A legal principle created by a court decision that provides an example for judges deciding similar issues in future cases.
  154. Legend Drug
    Another name for a prescription drug. 
  155. Legislative Law
    Law that is enacted by legislative decisions; also known as statutory law. 
  156. Liter
    Standard unit of volume in the metric system; 1 liter (L) is equal to 1,000 milliliters (mL).
  157. Lotion
    A low-to-medium-viscosity, topical preparation intended for application to unbroken skin. 
  158. Lowest Common Denominator 
    The smallest whole number that can be divided evenly by al denominators of a series of fractions. 
  159. Lozenge 
    Solid dosage form intended to dissolve or disintegrate slowly in the mouth, usually in a flavored, sweetened base. 
  160. Malpractice 
    Professional misconduct or lack of knowledge which results in injury, death, or damage to a patient. 
  161. Markup 
    The difference between the cost of an item and the price for which it sells. 
  162. Means
    The two inside terms of proportion 
  163. Mechanism of Action (MOA) 
    How the medication affects the body or disease to cure or treat a condition.
  164. Medication Error 
    A broad term that defines the potentially unsafe or unauthorized use of a medication on a patient. 
  165. Medication Order
    Used in the inpatient setting to prescribe medications to a patient. 
  166. Metric System
    Standard system of measure used throughout most of the world and exclusively in the scientific community; most common system of measure in pharmacy. 
  167. Micro-
    Metric system prefix indicating one-millionth.
  168. Milli-
    Metric system prefix indicating one-thousandth.
  169. Misbranding 
    Fraudulent or misleading labeling or marketing. 
  170. Misdemeanor 
    A crime that is punishable by a fine or up to one year in jail. 
  171. Mixed Fraction
    A combination of a whole number and a proper fraction; the value of a mixed fraction is always greater than one. 
  172. National Association of the Boards of Pharmacy (NABP)
    The professional association that helps to develop uniform standards for all states involved in the practice of pharmacy, with a focus on the protection of public health. 
  173. Net Profit
    The amount left from the selling price after cost of operations and overhead have been deducted. 
  174. Normal Saline
    0.9% sodium chloride solution that is isotonic to body fluids; symbolized by NS; 0.9 g NaCl per 100 ml solution. 
  175. Numerator 
    The expression written above the line in a common fraction and which functions as the dividend of the denominator. 
  176. Ointment
    Thick viscous preparation for application to the skin, often containing medication; abbreviated ung
  177. Ophthalmic
    Pertaining to the eye. 
  178. Oral 
    Relating to, affecting, or for use in the mouth or administration by way of the mouth. 
  179. Orphan Drug 
    A drug that is used to treat rare diseases, define by the FDA as fewer than 200,000 people in the United States. 
  180. Otic
    Pertaining to the ear. 
  181. Ounce
    Measure of weight in the apothecary system equal to approximately 30 grams (g). 
  182. Ovaries
    The female sex organs responsible for producing estrogen; these also contain the eggs which are released during the menstrual cycle. 
  183. Overhead
    The cost of doing business. 
  184. Parenteral 
    Avoiding the gastrointestinal tract. 
  185. Paste 
    Preparation for external application that is usually stiffer, less greasy, and more hydrophilic than ointments. 
  186. Pastilles 
    Subclass of lozenges that are softer and contain a high concentration of sugar or gelatin. 
  187. Pathology 
    The study of diseases in the body.
  188. Patient Profile
    A written or electronic file that contains al the patient's demographic information.
  189. Percent
    A fraction whose numerator is expressed and whose denominator is understood to be 100; symbolized by % in pharmacy, a percent is defined as grams of active drug/200 mL solution or g of base. 
  190. Percent Markup
    Markup expressed as a percent of cost. 
  191. pH
    A measure of the relative acidity or alkalinity of a solution or substances. 
  192. Pharmacodynamics
    The study of the physiological changes that occur when a medication is introduced into the body. 
  193. Pharmacokinetics
    The study of how a medication moves and changes throughout the body.
  194. Physiology 
    The study of the functions of the body.
  195. Pint
    Household measure of volume equal to 16 fluid ounces. 
  196. Policy 
    A plan of action that sets limits or boundary conditions around decisions that employees make.
  197. Powder
    Intimate mixtures of dry, finely divided drugs and/or inert ingredients intended for internal or external use. 
  198. Preservative 
    A substance used to retard, minimize, or prevent growth of microorganisms.
  199. Procedure 
    A stepwise view of how to execute a specific task.
  200. Product 
    The result of multiplying two or more quantities together. 
  201. Professional Ethics
    Standards that guide an individual in the profession.
  202. Proper Fraction 
    A fraction in which the numerator is smaller than the denominator; the value of a proper fraction is always less than one. 
  203. Proportion
    The relationship between two equal ratios.
  204. Protected Health Infromation
    Any communications that can identify an individual or disclose information about the state of their health; abbreviated a PHI
  205. Purchase Order (PO)
    The document sent to a medication supplier which requests an order of medication be sent to the pharmacy.
  206. Pyxis 
    A machine that dispenses medication as well as durable medical products; used today in many hospital institutions, pharmacies, and nursing units. 
  207. Quart
    A household measure of volume equal to 32 fluid ounces. 
  208. Ratio
    An expression that compares two numbers by division; symbolized by a colon. 
  209. Ratio Strength 
    A measure of concentration that specifies a quantity of substance in grams contained in a specified volume of solution; for example, ratio strength of 1: 1,000 means 1 g dissolved in 1,000 mL of solution.
  210. Reconstitution 
    The preparation of a powder bottle/vial into a liquid formulation by adding necessary diluent (liquid).
  211. Rectal
    Pertaining to the final straight portion of the large intestine.
  212. Repackaged Medications
    Any pharmacy product that has been removed from its original packaging from the manufacturer and placed in new packaging by the pharmacy.
  213. Respiratory System 
    The organ system that contains the lungs, which is responsible for taking in oxygen and excreting carbon dioxide. 
  214. Roman Numeral
    The system of numerals that uses letters to represent number values.
  215. Rounding 
    A process to yield a new number that has about the same value as the original number, but is less exact. 
  216. Saline
    Salt solution, usually composed of sodium chloride. 
  217. Selling Price
    The amount the customer pays for the product or service. 
  218. Solute
    Any substance that is dissolved in a liquid solvent to create a solution.
  219. Solution
    Homogeneous (evenly distributed) mixture of two or more substances, frequently (but not necessarily) a liquid; abbreviated sol.
  220. Solvent
    A liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances. 
  221. State Board of Pharmacy (BOP)
    The governing body that determines practice standards in a particular state. 
  222. Stock Solution 
    A concentrated solution that is diluted before use.
  223. Subcutaneous 
    Beneath the skin; abbreviated SQ, SC, or subQ.
  224. Sublingual
    Placed beneath the tongue; abbreviated SL.
  225. Suppository 
    A small plug of medication designed for insertion into the rectum or vagina where it melts; abbreviated supp.
  226. Suspension 
    A mixture in which fine particles are suspended in a fluid where they are supported by buoyancy; abbreviated "susp."
  227. Syrup 
    Thick liquid to which sweetener has been added to mask the taste of a bitter drug or to make it easier for children to take; abbreviated syr.
  228. Tablespoon
    A household measurement of volume approximately equal to 15 mL. 
  229. Tablet 
    A dose of medicine in the form of a small pellet; abbreviated tab. 
  230. Teaspoon
    A household measurement of volume approximately equal to 5 mL.
  231. Testes
    The male sex organs responsible for secreting testosterone; responsible for producing sperm. 
  232. Thyroid Gland
    Endocrine gland that secretes thyroid hormone; responsible for regulating metabolism and generating body heat. 
  233. Tincture 
    A medicine consisting of an extract in a strong alcohol solution, abbreviated tr. 
  234. Topical 
    Pertaining to the surface of a body part. 
  235. Transdermal 
    Through the skin.
  236. Troche 
    Subcategory of lozenge that is compressed. 
  237. Unit
    The amount of medication required to produce a desired effect. 
  238. Veins 
    The large vessels that carry oxygen-depleted blood.
  239. Vial 
    A relatively small glass vessel used to store medication as liquid or powder.