Basic Ocular Anatomy & Physiology

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ketch22
ID:
228554
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Basic Ocular Anatomy & Physiology
Updated:
2013-07-30 20:01:11
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ocular eye ophthalmic anatomy physiology COA
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Ophthalmic Medical Assisting (5th ed.)Chapter 2
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  1. movement of lateral rectus muscle
    abduction - outward toward the temple
  2. movement of superior oblique muscle
    incyclotorsion - down & inward
  3. movement of inferior oblique muscle
    excyclotorsion - up & outward
  4. movement of superior rectus muscle
    secondary incyclotorsion - upward
  5. movement of inferior rectus muscle
    secondary excyclotorsion- downward
  6. palpebral fissure
    opening between upper & lower lids
  7. canthus
    junction of upper & lower lids (medial=nasal side, lateral=temporal side)
  8. meibomium glands
    oil-secreting glands on the posterior side of the eyelids
  9. tarsal plate
    in the middle layer of the eyelids; gives eyelids firmness & shape
  10. orbicularis oculi
    circular muscle in the middle layer of the eyelid that closes the eye
  11. levator palpebrae superioris
    muscle in the middle layer of the upper eyelid that raises the lid
  12. difference between palpebral conjunctiva & bulbar conjunctiva
    • palpebral = lines the eyelids
    • bulbar = covers the outer eyeball
  13. fornix
    area where palpebral & bulbar conjunctiva meet; also called the cul-de-sac
  14. lacrimal gland - function & location
    • creates middle layer of tear film (moisture, nutrients, oxygen)
    • lateral part of the upper lid
  15. layers of the tear film
    • outer = oil produced by meibomian glands
    • center = moisture produced by lacrimal glands
    • inner = sticky fluid produced by goblet cells
  16. progression of tear flow through the eye
    • lacrimal gland
    • tear film
    • punctum
    • cannaliculus
    • lacrimal sac
    • nasolacrimal duct
  17. dacryocystitis
    inflammation of the lacrimal sac
  18. 5 layers of the cornea (name & function)
    • corneal epithelium - covering, protection
    • Bowman's membrane - anchors epithelial layer
    • corneal stroma - rigidity
    • Descemet's membrane - rigidity 
    • corneal endothelium - maintain fluid balance
  19. limbus
    junction between sclera and cornea
  20. location of anterior chamber
    between cornea & iris
  21. anterior chamber angle
    junction of cornea & iris; also called filtration angle; where aqueous fluid leaves the eye
  22. canal of Schlemm
    conduit in the sclera that drains aqueous humor
  23. passage of aqueous humor through the eye
    • produced by ciliary processes
    • flows across back of iris, through pupil, into anterior chamber
    • anterior chamber angle
    • trabecular meshwork
    • canal of Schlemm
    • aqueous veins
    • conjunctival venous vessels to general circulation
  24. accomodation - definition & process
    ciliary muscles contract & relax to change the curvature of the crystalline lens to help focus near vision
  25. uveal tract (3 components & function)
    • iris - controls amount of light entering eye
    • ciliary body - muscular support & nourishment; accomodation
    • choroid - provides blood supply
  26. dilator muscle
    stretches from pupil to edge of iris; dilates the pupil when contracted
  27. sphincter muscle
    encircles pupil; constricts pupil in bright light
  28. posterior chamber location
    between iris & vitreous
  29. ciliary process
    ridges on the inner surface of the ciliary body that produce aqueous humor
  30. choroid
    tissue layer between sclera & retina, mostly made of blood vessels
  31. zonules
    transparent fibers that attach the crystalline lens to the ciliary body
  32. cortex
    clear, paste-like protein surrounding the nucleus inside the crystalline lens
  33. layers of the retina
    • pigment epithelium
    • nerve cell layer
  34. photoreceptor cells (name & function)
    • rods = night vision & peripheral vision
    • Cones = Color vision & Central vision
  35. retrobulbar visual pathway
    • optic nerve
    • optic chiasm
    • optic tract
    • lateral geniculate bodies
    • optic radiations
    • visual cortex
  36. 4 structures of adnexa
    • orbit
    • extraocular muscles
    • eyelids
    • lacrimal apparatus

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