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2013-07-29 23:46:54
ch3 vocab

ch3 vocabulary
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  1. ´╗┐Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET)
    a wide area network linking various universities and research centers; forerunner of the Internet
  2. application software
    software used to perform a specific task that the user needs to accomplish
  3. bandwidth
    the transmission capacity of a computer or communications channel
  4. campus area network (CAN)
    type of network spanning multiple buildings, such as a university or business campus
  5. central processing unit (CPU)
    responsible for performing all the operations of the computer; AKA microprocessor, processor, or chip
  6. client
    any computer, such as a user's workstation or PC on a network, or any software application, such as a work processing application, that requests and uses the services provided by a server
  7. computer networking
    the sharing of information or services between computers using wireless or cable transmission media
  8. database
    a collection of related data organized in a way to facilitate data searches
  9. database management system (DBMS)
    a software application used to create, store, organize, and retrieve data from a single database or several databases
  10. dedicated grid
    a grid computing architecture consisting of homogeneous computers that are dedicated to performing the grid's computing tasks
  11. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)
    the U.S. governmental agency that began to study ways to interconnect networks of various kinds, leading to the development of the ARPANET
  12. digitize
    to convert analog into digital information, or bits, which can be used by computer-based information systems
  13. domain name
    used in Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) to identify a source or host entity on the Internet
  14. edge computing
    the location of relatively small servers close to the end users to save resources in terms of network bandwidth and provide improved access time
  15. embedded system
    microprocessor-based system(such as a digital video recorder [TiVo] or a network router) designed to perform only a specific, predefined task
  16. flash drive
    portable, removable data storage device using flash memory
  17. Gopher
    a text-based, menu-driven interface that enables users to access a large number of varied Internet resources as if they were in folders and menus on their own computers
  18. green computing
    attempts to use computing resources more efficiently, reducing energy needs
  19. grid computing
    a computing architecture that combines the computing power of a large number of smaller, independent, networked computers (often regular desktop PCs) into a cohesive system in order to solve large-scale computing problems
  20. hard drive
    a secondary storage device usually located inside the system unit of a computer for storing data: AKA hard disk
  21. hyperlink
    reference or link on a Web page to another document that contains related information
  22. hypertext
    text in a Web document that is linked to other text or files
  23. Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)
    the standard method of specifying the format of Web pages; specific content within each Web page is enclosed within codes (called HTML tags) that stipulate how the content should appear to the user
  24. Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
    the standard regulating how servers process user requests for web pages
  25. information systems infrastructure
    the hardware, software, networks, data, facilities, human resources, and services used by organizations to support their decision making, business processes, and competitive strategy
  26. infrastructure
    the interconnection of various structural elements to support an overall entity, such as an organization, city, or country
  27. infrastructure as a service (IaaS)
    a cloud computing model in which only the basic capabilities of processing, storage, and networking are provided
  28. input technologies
    hardware that is used to enter information into a computer
  29. Internet
    a large worldwide collection of networks that use a common protocol to communicate with each other
  30. IP address
    a numerical address assigned to every computer and router connected to the Internet, serving as the destination address of that computer or device and enabling the network to route messages to the proper destination
  31. IP convergence
    the use of the Internet protocol for transporting voice, video, fax, and data traffic
  32. IP datagram
    a data packet that conforms to the Internet protocol specification
  33. local area network (LAN)
    a computer network that spans a relatively small area, allowing all computer users to connect with each other to share information and peripheral devices, such as printers
  34. mainframe
    a very large computer that is used as the main, central computing system by major corporations and governmental agencies
  35. metropolitan area network (MAN)
    a computer network of limited geographic score, typically a citywide area that combines both LAN and high-speed fiber-optic technologies
  36. microcomputer
    a category of computers that is generally used for personal computing,for small business computing, aand as workstations attached to large computers or to other small computers on a network
  37. Moore's Law
    the prediction that computer processing performance would double every 18 months
  38. National Science Foundation (NSF)
    a U.S. governmental agency responsible for promoting science and engineering; the NSF initiated the development of the NSFNET
  39. National Science Foundation Network (NSFNET)
    a network developed by the U.S. in 1986 that became a major component of the Internet
  40. network
    a group of computers and associated peripheral devices connected by a communication channel capable of sharing data and other resouces (e.g. a printer) among users
  41. nonvolatile memory
    memory that does not lose its data after power is shut off
  42. open source software
    software for which the source code is freely available for use and/or modifications
  43. operating system
    software that coordinates the interaction between hardware devices, peripherals, application software, and users
  44. optical disk
    a storage disk coated with a metallic substance that is written to (or read from) when a laser beam passes over the surface of a disk
  45. output technologies
    hardware devices that deliver information in a usable form
  46. packet switching
    the process of breaking information into small chunks called data packets and then managing the transfer of those packets from computer to computer via the Internet
  47. peer
    any computer that may both request and provide services
  48. peer-to-peer networks
    networks that enable any computer or device on the network to provide and request services
  49. personal area network (PAN)
    a wireless network used to exchange data between computing devices using short-range radio communication, typically within an area of 10 meters
  50. planned obsolescence
    the design of a product so that it lasts for only a certain life span
  51. platform as a service (PaaS)
    a cloud computing model in which the customer can run his or her own applications that are typically designed using tools provided by the service provider but has limited or no control over the underlying infrastructure
  52. primary storage
    temporary storage for current calculations
  53. private branch exchange (PBX)
    a telephone system that serves a particular location, such as a business, connecting one telephone extension to another within the system and connecting the internal extensions to the outside telephone network
  54. private cloud
    cloud infrastructure that is internal to an organization
  55. processing technologies
    computer hardware that transforms inputs into outputs
  56. protocols
    procedures that different computers follow when they transmit and receive data
  57. public cloud
    cloud infrastructure offered on a commercial basis by a cloud service provider
  58. random-access memory (RAM)
    a type of primary storage that is volatile and can be accessed randomly by the CPU
  59. router
    an intelligent device used to connect and route data traffic across two or more individual networks
  60. scalability
    the ability to adapt to increases or decreases in demand for processing or data storage
  61. secondary storage
    methods for permanently storing data to a large-capacity storage component, such as a hard disk, diskette, CD-ROM disk, or tape
  62. server
    any computer on the network that enables access to files, databases, communications, and other services available to users of the network; it typically has a more advanced microprocessor, more memory, a larger cache, and more disk storage than a single-use computer
  63. server-centric network
    network in which servers and clients have defined roles
  64. service-level agreement
    contract specifying the level of service provided in terms of performance (e.g., as measured by uptime) , warranties, disaster recover, and so on
  65. software
    a program or set of programs that tell the computer to perform certain processing functions
  66. software as a service (SaaS)
    a cloud computing model in which a service provider offers applications via a cloud infrastructure
  67. supercomputer
    the most expensive and most powerful category of computers; it is primarily used to assist in solving massive research and scientific problems
  68. systems software
    the collection of programs that controls the basic operations of computer hardware
  69. top-level domain
    the highest level of Internet domain names in the domain name system, as indicated by their suffix (i.e., .com, .edu,. or .org)
  70. Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
    the protocol of the Internet, which allows different interconnected networks to communicate using the same language
  71. transmission media
    the physical pathways to send data and information between two or more entities on a network
  72. Uniform Resource Locator (URL)
    the unique Internet address for a Web site and specific Web pages within sites
  73. utility computing
    a form of on-demand computing where resources in terms of processing, data storage, or networking are rented on an as-needed basis; the organization only pays for the services used
  74. videoconferencing over IP
    the use of Internet technologies for videoconferences
  75. virtual machine
    a computer that does not exist as a physical machine but is implemented in software, allowing multiple computers to be run on a single server
  76. virtualization
    the use of multiple virtual machines (run on large servers) to reduce energy needs
  77. voice over IP (VoIP)
    the use of Internet technologies for placing telephone calls
  78. volatile memory
    memory that loses its contents when the power is turned off
  79. Web browser
    a software application that can be used to locate and display Web pages including text, graphics, and multimedia content
  80. Web page
    a hypertext document stored on a Web server that contains not only information but also references or links to other documents that contain related information
  81. Web server
    a computer used to host Web sites
  82. Web site
    a collection of interlinked Web pages typically belonging to the same person or business organization
  83. Wi-Fi network (wireless fidelity)
    Wireless LAN, based on the 802.11 family of standards
  84. wide area network (WAN)
    a computer network that spans a relatively large geographic area; typically used to connect two or more LANs
  85. wireless local area network (WLAN)
    local area network using a wireless transmission protocol
  86. workstation
    computers offering lower performance than mainframes but higher performance than microcomputers that are designed for medical, engineering, or animation and graphics design uses, and are optimized for visualization and rendering of 3D models
  87. World Wide Web
    a system of Internet servers that support documents formatted in HTML, which supports links to other documents, as well as graphics, audio, and video files