Science - Ch. 3

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2286
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Science - Ch. 3
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2009-12-05 12:58:53
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science chapter 3
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  1. crust
    the thin and solid outermost layer of Earth above the mantle
  2. mantle
    the layer of rock between Earth's crust and core
  3. core
    the central part of Earth below the mantle
  4. asthenosphere
    the asthenosphere is a solid, plastic layer upon which the tectonic plates move
  5. lithosphere
    the lithosphere is 15 to 300 km thick. This rigid layer of Earth is divided into pieces called tectonic plates
  6. mesosphere
    The mesosphere is the lower, solid layer of the mantle
  7. convection
    the movement of matter due to differences in density; the transfer of energy due to the movement of matter
  8. convection current
    any movement of matter that results from differences in density; may be vertical, circular, or cyclical
  9. temperature
    a measure of how hot(or cold) something is; specifically, a measure of the average kenetic energy of the particles in an object
  10. heat
    the energy transferred between objects that are at different temperatures
  11. thermal energy
    the kinetic energy of a substance's atoms
  12. conduction
    the transfer of energy as heat through a material
  13. radiation
    the transfer of energy as electromagnetic waves
  14. heat flow
    term for heat transfer, the transfer of energy from a warmer object to a cooler object
  15. electromagnetic spectrum
    all of the frequencies or wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation
  16. rock cycle
    the series of processes in which rock forms, changes from one type to another, is destroyed and forms again by geologic processes
  17. water cycle
    the continuous movement of water between the atmosphere, the land, and the oceans
  18. carbon cycle
    the movement of carbon from the nonliving environment into living things and back
  19. nitrogen cycle
    the process in which nitrogen circulates among the air, soil, water, plants and animals in an ecosystem
  20. How energy and matter flow through Earth's four spheres
    Geosphere - solid rock layer, slowly moves causing heat transfer between the layers which warms the earth surface and impacts the atmosphere.

    Atmosphere - the sun radiates the main source of energy. solar radiation heats Earth's surface unevenly which causes the air to move. The movement distributes the energy. Called convection.

    Hydrosphere - the sun heats the ocean unevenly which causes the water density to change and move. Called convection current.

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