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  1. plasma vs rbc
    • fluid left after cells removed can clot
    • fluid after clot is removed
  2. albumin
    from liver, smaller than globulins, maintain osmoic pressure and carry certain metabolites
  3. what is the only source for hematopoesis at birth?
    bone marrow. Before birth stem cells in liver then migrate to bone marrow
  4. lympthoid vs myeloid vs erythmoud
    • B/T cells
    • vs nonspecific monocytes and DCs
    • vs RBCs and platelets in bone marrow
  5. PSC goes to
    lymphoid and myeloid progenitors
  6. what is required for erythropoiseis
    erythropoietin, B-12, folate,
  7. RBC maturateion
  8. RBC
    giesma smear and 120 day life span. Removed by spleen and liver. Lose nucleus when mature
  9. reticulocyte
    immature RBC with residual ribo RNA. Too high in these means his person is anemic and bone marrow is responding
  10. Values of RBCs
    Hb, RBC count, PCV
  11. anemia
    reduced oxygen carrying capacity
  12. anemia due to decreased RBC  production
    Iron/B12 deficiency
  13. anemia can be due to/......failure
    • bone marrow
    • liver
    • globin synthesis: thalessemia
  14. Iron deficiency anemia
    most common form, serum ferritin is low, hypochromic microcrytic anemia
  15. Iron absorption
    in duodenum via DMT and ferroportin releases this into liver
  16. Iron metabolism via brown pigment in macrophages
  17. Lab findings in iron deficiency
    decreased iron, bone marrow stores, ferritin, increased TIBC
  18. chronic anemia
    decreased, Iron, TIBC, increased bone marrow stores and ferritin
  19. iron deficiency
    white hands, pupil, oral hesions, sore tongue, angular cheitltis
  20. clinical presentation
    fatigue, breathlessness, sore mouth, angular stmatisits
  21. megaloblastic anemia
    B12/folate. Impaied DNA synthesis, enlarged erythroid precursors. Megablasts in bone marrow
  22. cause for vitamin b12 deficiency
    pernicious anemia
  23. vita b12 absorption
    inadequte intrinsic factor. B12 is not absorbed from stomach. TranscobalminII delivers to rest of body
  24. causes b12 deficiency
    autoimmune, malabsorption
  25. folate deficiency causes
    diet poor in fruits and veggies, alcoholics, drugs, malabsorption, increased metabolis needs
  26. lab findings for vita b12 and folate deficiency
    peripheral bld smear macrocytic anemia, hypersegmented neutrophils. hypercellular bone marrow, megaloblastic changes
  27. anemia of chronic disease pathology
    response to inflammation. Liver produced Hepcidin which supresses feroportin, blunts bone marrow response.
  28. chronic anemia
    reticulocyte count low
  29. aplastic anemia
    Idopathic, infections, genetic, drugs
  30. aplastic anemia manesfestation
    hypocellular bone marrow
  31. hemolytic anemia
    intrinsic and extrinsic destruction of RBC
  32. RBC membrane disorders
    membrane proteins stabilize the lipid bilayer
  33. Hereditary Spherocytosis
    deficiency of cytoskeleton protein. Rigid membrane
  34. Causes hered. sphereo
    autosomal domiant, Northern euriopean, hemolytic anemia, jaundice, low Hb, needs osmotic fragility test
  35. hereditary elliptocytosis
    African and mediteranean descent. resistance to malaria. Due to spectrin defect
  36. red cell enzyme disorder
    G6PD deficiency. Not enough glutathione reduction. hexose-monoP us sole source of NADPH in RBCs
  37. G6PD deficiency leads to
    hemolysis, Heinz bdies, protection against malaria. Spectroometric analysis. Avoidance of  oxidant stressors
  38. Pyrimidin 5 nucleotidase
    autosomal recessive. degrades RNA in reticulocytes. ONLY rbc enzyme deficiency with consistent morphology...basophillic stippling due to rRNA. (lead poisioning anemia and thalessemia
  39. What causes vascular hemolysis  or trauma to RBC
    DIC, hypertension (malignant), hemlytic uremic syndrome, thermal injury
  40. autoimmune hemolytic anemia
    IgG antibodies against RBCs. RBCs become sphereical. Increased reticulocytosis
  41. hemolysis lab eval
    reticulocytosis-nucleated RBCs, polychromatophillia,

    • freee serum Hb
    • free urin Hb
    • jaundice
  42. hemoglobinopathies
    problem with globin chains...normally there are four. Thalassemia abnormal amount oof chain

    Or can be globin chains with defects
  43. sickle cell sidease
    genetic disorders with abnormal synthesis of HbS
  44. sicble cell anemia pathology
    spleen enlarges then hypoxia, then auto-splenetomy
  45. thalassemia
    quantativetive defects. Not enought globin chains produced so hyprochromic microcytic anemia
  46. thalassemia bone marrow
    expansion to compensate for increased hematopoiesis
  47. polycytemia
    increased RBC count. can be caused by dehydration. Or excess erythropoietin. responsive or pathologic as in tumors
Card Set:
2013-07-31 02:57:00

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