child psych

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jadki1582
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228625
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child psych
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2013-08-01 17:56:15
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  1. Developmental science is...
    The study of age-related changes in behavior, thinking, emotions, and social relationships.
  2. Norms are...
    Average ages at which developmental events happen.
  3. Behaviorism is...
    The theoretical view that defines development in terms of behavior changes caused by environmental influences.
  4. Maturation is ...
    Sequential patterns of change that are governed by instructions contained in the genetic code and shared by all members of a species.
  5. Critical period is...
    Any time period during development when an organism is especially responsive to and learns from a specific type of stimulation. The same stimulation at other points in development has little or not effect.
  6. Sensitive period is...
    A period during which particular experiences can best contribute to proper development. It is similar to a critical period, but the effects of deprivation during a sensitive period are not as sever as during a critical period.
  7. Behavior genetics is...
    The study of the genetic contributions to behavior or traits such as intelligence or personality.
  8. Internal models of experience is...
    A theoretical concept emphasizing that each child creates a set of core ideas or assumptions about the world, the self, and relationships with others through which all subsequent experience is filtered.
  9. Normative age-graded changes are...
    Changes that are common to every member of a species.
  10. Normative history-graded changes are...
    Changes that occur in most members of a cohort as a result of factors at work during a specific, well-defined historical period.
  11. Cohort is...
    A group of individuals who share the same historical experiences at the same times in their lives.
  12. Nonnormative changes (individual differences) are...
    Changes that result from unique, unshared events.
  13. Developmental theories are...
    Sets of statements that propose general principles of development.
  14. Psychoanalytic theories are...
    Developmental theories based on the assumption that age-related change results from maturationally determined conflicts between internal drives and society's demands.
  15. Libido is...
    The term used by Freud to describe the basic, unconscious, instinctual sexual energy in each individual.
  16. Id is...
    In Freudian theory, the inborn, primitive portion of the personality, the storehouse of libido, the basic energy that continually pushes for immediate gratification.
  17. Ego is...
    In Freudian theory, the portion of the personality that organizes, plans, and keeps the person in touch with reality. Language and thought are both ego functions.
  18. Superego is...
    In Freudian theory, the "conscience" part of personality, which contains parental and societal values and attitudes incorporated during childhood.
  19. Psychosexual stages are...
    The stages of personality development suggested by Freud: the oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital stages.
  20. Psychosocial stages are...
    The stages of personality development suggested by Erikson, involving basic trust, autonomy, initiative, industry, identity, intimacy, generativity, and ego integrity.
  21. Cognitive-developmental theories are...
    Developmental theories that emphasize children's actions on the environment and suggest that age-related changes in reasoning precede and explain changes in other domains.
  22. Scaffolding is...
    The term used by Bruner to describe the process by which a teacher (or parent, older child, or other person in the role of teacher) structures a learning encounter with a child, so as to lead the child from step to step - a process consistent with Vygotsky's theory of cognitive development.
  23. Zone of proximal development is...
    In Vygotsky's theory, the range of tasks that are slightly too difficult for a child to do alone but that can be accomplished successfully with guidance from an adult or more experienced child.
  24. Information-processing theories are...
    A set of theories based on the idea that humans process information in ways that are similar those used in computers.
  25. Learning theories are...
    Psychological theories that explain development in terms of accumulated learning experiences.
  26. Classical conditioning is...
    One of three major types of learning. An automatic, or unconditional response such as an emotion or a reflex comes to be triggered by a new cue, called the conditional stimulus, after having been paired several times with that stimulus.
  27. Operant conditioning is...
    The type of learning in which the probability of a person's performing some behavior is increased or decreased because of the consequences it produces.
  28. Positive reinforcement is...
    The process of strengthening a behavior by the presentation of some pleasurable or positive stimulus.
  29. Negative reinforcement is...
    The process of strengthening a behavior by the removal or cessation of an unpleasant stimulus.
  30. Punishment is...
    The removal of a desirable stimulus or the administration of an unpleasant consequences after some undesired behavior in order to stop the behavior.
  31. Eclectism is...
    The use of multiple theoretical perspectives to explain and study human development.
  32. Hypothesis is...
    A testable prediction based on a theory.
  33. Cross-sectional design is...
    A form of research study in which samples of participants from several different age groups are studied at the same time.
  34. Longitudinal design is...
    A form of research study in which the same participants are observed or assessed repeatedly over a period of months or years.
  35. Sequential design is..
    A form of research study that combines cross-sectional and longitudinal designs in some way.
  36. Case studies are...
    In-depth studies of individuals.
  37. Naturalistic observations are...
    A research method in which participants are observed in their normal environments.
  38. Correlation is...
    A statistic used to describe the strength of a relationship between two variables. It can range from +1.00 or -1.00, the stronger the relationship being described.
  39. Experiment is...
    A research method for testing a causal hypothesis, in which participants are assigned randomly to experimental and control groups and the experimental group is then provided with a particular experience that is expected to alter behavior in some fashion.
  40. Experimental group is...
    A group of participants in an experiment who receive a particular treatment intended to produce some specific effect.
  41. Control group is..
    A group of participants an experiment who receive either no special treatment or some neutral treatment.
  42. Independent variable is...
    A condition or event that an experimenter varies in some systematic way in order to observe the impact of that variation on participants' behavior.
  43. Dependent variable is...
    The variable in an experiment that is expected to show the impact of manipulations of the independent variables; also called the outcome variable.
  44. Cross-cultural research is...
    Any study that involves comparisons of different cultures or contexts.
  45. Ethnography is...
    A detailed description of a single culture or context based on extensive observation.

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