Week 13.txt

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Srangel
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22863
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Week 13.txt
Updated:
2010-06-09 19:01:52
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Hist 17B
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History
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  1. �The baby boom�
    • (years vary depending on the source) 1946-1964 period marked by a greatly increased birth rate-post WWII
    • estimated 78.3 Americans born
    • began right after the war & started to decline around 1957
  2. The G.I. Bill (Servicemen�s Readjustment Act)
    • June 22, 1944 Signed into law by Pres FDR
    • an omnibus bill providing college or vocational education for returning WWII vets (GI's) & one year of unemployment compensation
    • provided many different types of loans for GI's so they could buy homes & start businesses
    • o.g. bill ended in July 1956
  3. Interstate Highway Act (1956)
    • June 29, 1956 signed into law by Pres. Eisenhower
    • appropriating $25 bill for the construction of 41,000 miles of Interstate Highways over a 20-year period
    • then it was the largest public works project in American hist
    • money was handled in a highway trust fund that paid 90% of construction costs while states were required to pay 10%
  4. Federal Housing Administration (FHA)
    • US gov agency created as part of the National Housing Act of 1934
    • goals: improve housing standards & conditions; provide an adequate home financing system through insurance of mortgage loans; & to stabilize the mortgage market
    • regualte the rate of interest & the terms of mortgages that it insured
    • increased the number of ppl who could afford a down payment & monthly debt service payments on a mortgage, thereby also increasing the size of the market for single-fam homes
  5. Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)
    • 1942 founded by ???
    • US civil rights org that originally played a pivotal role for African-Americans in the Civil Rights Mov't
  6. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (1954)
    • -US Supreme Court declared state laws establishing seperate public schools for black and white students and denying black children equal educational opportunities unconstitutional
    • -Overturned Plessy v. Ferguson of 1896 'seperate but equal'
    • -Warren Court's 9-0 (chief justice earl warren)
    • -de jure racial segregation was ruled a Violation of the Equal protection clause of the 14th amendment
    • -Victory paved the way for integration & the civil rights movement
  7. Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955)
    • political & social protest campaign in Montgomery, Alabama
    • purpose: to oppose the city's policy of racial segregation on its public transit system
    • result: crippling financial deficit for the Montgomery public transit sys b/c the city's black population who were the drivers of the boycott were also the bulk of the system's ridership
    • history: 12/1/1955 Rosa Parks - 12/20/1956 when a federal ruling took effect -> US Supreme Court decision that declared the Alabama & Montgomery laws requiring segregated buses to be UNConstitutional
    • -Martin jr, ralph abernathy & many others involved
    • -US civil rights movement gain victory & gave Martin the national attention that made him on of the prime leaders of the cause
  8. �Southern Manifesto� (1956)
    • Document written in Feb-March 1956 by legislators in the US congress opposed to racial integration in public places
    • Signed by 101 politicians 99 democrats and 2 republicans; 19 senators & 82 house reps
    • Drawn up as a response to the 1954 Brown v. Board of edu
  9. Little Rock (1957)
    • 'Little Rock crisis' 9 African-American students enrolled in Little Rock Central High after Brown V. Board Edu passed
    • -initially were prevented from entering the racially segregated school by Arkansa governor Orval Faubus
    • who deployed the Arkansas National guard to support the segregationists on Sept. 4, 1957
    • Gov. Faubus was summoned by Pres Eisenhower to not interfere with the ruling
    • Woodrow Mann 'Mayor of little rock' asked Pres E to send federal troops to enforce integration & protect the 9 students
    • On sept 24 Pres ordered the 101st Airborne Division of the US army to Little Rock & federalized the entire 10,000 member Arkansa National Guard=taking it out of the hands of Gov. Faubus
    • -until an intervention from Pres. Eisenhower then they were allowed to enter
    • on Sept. 25, 1957 the students successfully entered the school
    • -Ernest Green was the first African-Amer to graduate from Central high

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