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War Relocation Authority
- Formed on March 18,1942 by Executive order 9102- Milton Eisenhower o.g. director set up 10 camps
- US gov agency established to handle internment (imprisonment of ppl in large groups w/o trial) of Jap-, Germ-, & Italian-Americans during WWII
- Pres. Harry Truman terminated WRA's mission on June 26, 1946
Hirabayashi vs. U.S.
- 1943 Case heald in the Supreme court
- Ruled the application of curfews against members of a minority group were constitutional when the nation was at war with the country from which that group originated
- This happened b/c of Pearl Harbor & FDR gave permission to military
- Defendant Gordon Hirabayashi U of Wash student convicted of violating curfew & relocation order
- Chief Justic Harlan Stone
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
- 1945 executive order given by Pres. Harry Truman
- "Little Boy" on Hiroshima August 6 & "Fat Man" on Nagasaki Aug. 9
- Happened b/c Jap gov't ignored an ultimatum given by the Potsdam Declaration
- Led to the surrender of the Japs on Aug. 15 (6 days later) to the Allied Powers-signed the Instrument of Surrender on Sept. 2
- ending the Pacific war & WWII
- led to post-war Jap adopting Three Non-Nuclear Principles, forbidding the nation from nuclear armament
- political action of making accusations of disloyalty, subversion, or treason w/o proper regard for evidence.
- late 1940's-late 1950's Second Red Scare; fear of communist influence on American institutions & espionage by Soviets
House committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC)
- 1938-1975 was an investigative committee of the US house of reps.
- in 1969 name changed to "House Committee on Internal security"
- 1975 House abolished committee so its functions were transferred to the House Judiciary Committee
The Trial of the Hollywood Ten
- Trails ran from 1948-1950
- Crime charged: Contempt of Congress
- Place Washington, D.C.
- Verdict: Guilty
- Sentences: 1 yr imprisonment & $1,000 fine for 8 except Biberman & Dmytryk= 6 months & $500
- Significance: landmark in the history of the abuse of civil liberties; set the stage for blacklist; & created a precedent for making political beliefs a test of employability
- info: Robert Stripling chief investigator for HUAC
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
- were American communists who were executed in 1953 for conspiracy to commit espionage
- charges related to passing info about the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union
- first execution of civilians for espionage in US history