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Define heterogeneous mixture
a nonuniform mixture that has regions of different composition.
define homogeneous mixture
a uniform mixture that has the same composition throughout.
What is a Solution?
A homogeneous mixture that contains particles the size of a typical ion or small molecule.
what is a colloid?
a homogeneous mixture that contains particles that range in diameter from 2 - 500 nm.
what is a solute?
a substance that is dissolved in a solvent.
what is a solvent?
the substance in which another substance (the solute) is dissolved.
what is solvation?
the clustering of solvent molecules around a dissolved solute molecule or ion.
what is hygroscopic?
having the ability to pull water molecues from the surrounding atmosphere.
What is miscible?
Mutually soluble in all proportions.
What is Saturated solution?
a solution that contains the maximum amount of dissolved solute at equilibrium.
what is solubility?
the maximum amount of a substance that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent at a specified temperature.
what is supersaturated solution?
a solution that contains more than the maximum amount of dissolved solute; a nonequilibrium situation.
defined Henry's Law
the solubility of a gas is directly proportional to its partial pressure. an increase in pressure causes more gas molecules to enter solution until equilibrium is restored between the dissolved and undissolved gas.
What is henry's formula?
C / Pgas = K (when temperature is constant)
what are all the percent concentration formulas?
mass/mass) 100%, vol/vol) 100%, mass/vol) 100%
What is Molarity?
Concentration expressed as the number of moles of solute per liter of solution.
what is the formula for Molarity?
Molarity (M) = Moles of solute
Liters of solution
what is the moles of solute formula?
McVc=MdVd is moles of solute
the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane separating two solutions of different concentration.
What is osmotic pressure?
the amount of external pressure that must be applied to a solution to prevent the net movement of solvent molecules across a semipermeable membrane.