AFAA Section I
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8 Health benefits associated with participation in regular physical activity
Prevention of weight gain, lower risk of stroke, lower risk of high blood pressure, reduced depression, lower risk of breast cancer, lower risk of type 2 diabetes, lower risk of coronary heart disease, weight loss
How can interval training improve aerobic performance?
This repetitive form of training leads to the adaptation response. The body begins to build new capillaries, and is better able to take in and deliver oxygen to the working muscles. Muscles develop a higher tolerance to the build-up of lactate, and the heart muscle is strengthened. These changes result in improved performance particularly within the cardiovascular system
3 physiological adaptations that occur to improve exercise performance and state how or why improvement occurs
- 1) Increased blood flow - exercise forces the left ventricle to pump larger volumes of blood. Heart pumps more blood per beat.
- 2) Increased oxygen delivery and carbon monoxide removal -
- 3) Increased maximal oxygen uptake and aerobic power -
Define energy and its food source
Energy is the ability to do work. Our main source of energy is the SUN!
- ATP = Adenosine triphosphate
- Intracellular carrier of chemical energy produced by the body for muscle work.
ATP-CP system/phosphagen system (Anaerobic Pathway)
- * Fuel source = chemical
- * Intensity = high
- * Duration = 1-5 Seconds
3 Examples of ATP-CP system/phosphagen system
- 1) Power lifting
- 2) 100 & 200 meter running sprints
- 3) Shot put & discus
Lactic Acid System (Anaerobic Pathway)
- * Fuel source = glucose - the usable form of carbohydrate in our body
- * Intensity = High
- * Duration = 45-90 Seconds
3 examples of activities that utilize the lactic acid system
- 1) basketball
- 2) volleyball
- 3) prolonged sprints
Aerobic System (Aerobic Pathway)
- * Fuel Source = Carbs, fats, proteins
- * Intensity = Low-moderate
- * Duration = at least 10-15 minutes
3 Examples of activities that utilize the aerobic system
- 1) Sleeping
- 2) walking
- 3) low intensity, long duration physical activity
With oxygen, or in the presence of oxygen
Requiring no oxygen; usually short spurt high energy activities
After 3-4 min of exercise, oxygen uptake has reached an adequate level; to meet the oxygen demand of the tissues; heart rate, cardiac output and pulmonary ventilation have attained fairly consistent levels.
Excess post-oxygen consumption (EPOC)
Traditionally known as oxygen debt, refers to oxygen uptake remaining elevated above resting levels for several minutes during exercise recovery.
A period in which the level of oxygen consumption is below what is necessary to supply appropriate ATP production required of any exercise.
The point at which the body can no longer meet its demand for oxygen and anaerobic metabolism is accelerated
The ability of the body to remove oxygen from the air and transfer it through the lungs and blood to the working muscles; related to cardio respiratory endurance.
The by-product of anaerobic metabolism of glucose or glycogen in muscle
- * Complete breakdown of glucose
- * Can utilize carbs, fats, or proteins as fuel
- * Long-duration activity
- * Smaller EPOC
- * Submaximal work (moderate intensity)
- * CO2 and H2O are end products
- * Uses oxygen in chemical breakdown
- * Partial breakdown of glucose
- * Can only use carbs as fuel
- * Short-duration activity
- * Greater EPOC
- * Maximal output (high intensity)
- * Lactic acid is the by-product
- * doesnt need O2 in chemical breakdown
The volume of blood ejected by each ventricle of the heart during a single stroke
The volume of blood pumped by each ventricle in one minute
the "pumping action" of the muscles in the extremities and respiratory system along with vasoconstriction to move oxygen-poor blood back to the heart
A condition caused by ceasing vigorous exercise too quickly so that blood remains in the extremities and may not be delivered quickly enough to the heart and brain
- the greatest volume of air that can be forcibly exhaled after the deepest inspiration
- Valsalva maneuver
- a dangerous condition that can occur if an individual holds his/her breath causing the glottis to close and stomach muscles to contract, forming an unequal pressure in the chest cavity, reduced blood flow to the heart and insufficient oxygen to the brain. Dizziness and temporary loss of consciousness may occur.
Blood Pressure Norm
- The point at which two or more bones meet or articulate and where movement occurs
Bands or sheet-like fibrous tissue that connect bones to bone and reinforce joints from dislocation; they are nonelastic and have limited ROM.
Band of dense fibrous tissue forming the termination of a muscle and attaching muscle to the bone with a minimum of elasticity
White, semi-opaque fibrous connective tissue; cushions and prevents wear on articular surfaces
Anterior / Posterior
Front / Back
Medial / Lateral
Toward the midline / away from the midline
Supine / Prone
Lying face up / lying face down
Superior / Inferior
Upper half / lower half
Unilateral / bilateral
Affects one side of the body / affects both sides of the body
Anatomical planes that divide the body
- 1) Horizontal (transverse) = top/bottom
- 2) Sagittal - Sides or left/right
- 3) Frontal - Front/back
Decreases the angle between 2 bones
Increasing the angle between 2 bones; the straightening of a muscle previously in flexion
- Movement away from the midline of the body
- Movement toward the midline of the body
Movement around an axis
Movement in which the extremity describes a 360 degree circle
A prime mover; directly responsible for a particular action
Acts in opposition to the action produced by a prime mover
The muscles performing the work
Muscles that help perform the work
Help prevent undesired or unnecessary motions
- A muscle contraction in which the tension remains constant as the muscle shortens or lengthens
- Example - Planks
- Muscle shortens as positive work is done against gravity
- Example - Bicep curl
- Muscle lengthens while contracting, developing tension as when the muscles oppose the force of gravity
- Example - the action of lowering the dumbbell back down from the lift in a biceps curl is eccentric
- Tension remains constant as the muscle shortens or lengthens
- Example - sit ups
- Contractions in which the tension developed by the muscle while shortening at constant speed is maximal over the full ROM
- Example - Arm stroke while swimming
3 muscle contractions used in Group Exercise setting
- 1) Concentric
- 2) Eccentric
- 3) Isometric
Fast twitch muscle fibers
- Able to generate quick, high intensity contractions but are more easily fatigued
- Example - short spurt activities such as sprinting
Slow twitch muscle fibers
- Designed for prolonged submaximal aerobic activities and are slow to fatigue
- Example - long term low-moderate intensity such as long distance running
Benefits of weight bearing activities
Increases bone density
Benefits of increased muscle strength
Increases both physical appearance & physical performance
Benefits of increased muscular flexibility
Improves tissue elasticity and helps to facilitate movement
3 postural deviations of the back
- 1) Scoliosis
- 2) Kyphosis
- 3) Lordosis
Stretch reflex - definition, purpose & when it occurs
A muscle contraction in response to stretching within the muscle. Maintains a constant length
Diagram of a simple lever with a fulcrum
6 classes of nutrients
- 1) water
- 2) carbs
- 3) protien
- 4) fat
- 5) vitamins
- 6) minerals
Different types of carbs
- * Simple - sugars, are primarily found in fruits, vegetables, milk, and milk products
- * Complex - glucose molecules linked together as polysaccharides, or many sugar units found in grains, legumes and veggies such as potatoes
What are vitamins?
Non-caloric organic compounds needed in small quantities to assist in such functions as growth, maintenance and repair
Fat Soluble vitamins
Stored in the liver and can be toxic with over dosing
Water soluble vitamins
Excreted by the kidneys, not likely to be toxic
What are minerals?
Inorganic compounds that assist processes such as regulating activity of enzymes and maintaining acid base balance and are structural components of body tissue
8 Dietary Guidelines outlined by the U.S. Dept of Health and Human Services and the U.S. Dept of Agriculture
- 1) Consume a variety of nutrient-dense foods and beverages within and among the basic food groups while choosing foods that limit the intake of saturated and transfats, cholesterol, added sugars, salt, and alcohol
- 2) To prevent gradual weight gain over time, make small decreases in food and beverage calories and increase physical activity.
- 3) Engage in regular physical activity and reduce sedentary activities to promote health, psychological well-being, and a healthy body weight.
- 4) Choose a variety of fruits and vegetables each day. In particular, select from all five vegetable subgroups (dark green, orange, legumes, starchy vegetables, and other vegetables) several times a week.
- 5) Consume 3 cups per day of fat-free or low-fat milk or equivalent milk products.
- 6) Achieve physical fitness by including cardiovascular conditioning, stretching exercises for flexibility, and resistance exercises or calisthenics for muscle strength and endurance
- 7) Consume 3 or more ounce-equivalents of whole-grain products per day, with the rest of the recommended grains coming from enriched or whole-grain products. In general, at least half the grains should come from whole grains
- 8) Consume less than 10 percent of calories from saturated fatty acids and less than 300 mg/day of cholesterol, and keep trans fatty acid consumption as low as possible.
Describe MyPyramid and how participants may benefit from this resource
MyPyramid offers personalized eating plans and interactive tools to help you plan/ assess your food choices based on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. It will help to give participants a better understanding of what they should be eating and how much physical activity they need to maintain a healthy lifestyle.
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