Ch.5 and ch.6

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Brea
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228741
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Ch.5 and ch.6
Updated:
2013-07-31 17:29:30
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nerve
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Nerve cell physiology
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  1. Nerve cells have a resting potential: at rest
    they will always have a charge of
    -70 mV
  2. When we stimulate the dendrites we allow
    molecules to come in, so the more stimulation that occurs the more the resting
    potential is adjusted creating an action potential, it can stay at it’s resting
    potential up until negative
    -55 mV
  3. At -55mV it allows other molecules to flood in
    and out creating the action potential increasing the molecular charge to
    +120mV
  4. Resting potential is
    polarized
  5. action potential is
    depolarized
  6. § 
    when the action potential causes the charge to
    over shoot to -90 before returning to the resting potential; this is the period
    after the action potential; repairing it’s self from the action potential and
    allows a break before another AP is begun again
    refractory period
  7. - intentionally stimulate the nerve so much that
    it can’t perform an action potential, therefore it’s like turning off the
    nerve; used for diseases like Parkinson’s
    deep brain stimulation
  8. hyperpolarization is at
    +120 mV
  9. Oligodendroglia is
    myelin for the CNS
  10. Schwann is
    myelin for the PNS
  11. § 
    is a neurotransmitter (NT) and it is used
    between two neural cells, they are the molecular compounds in the synapse;
    their job is to depolarize the dendrite so that the action potential can begin
    ACH
  12. use only a pure electrical charge because NT are
    too slow for it.
    VISION AND HEARING
  13. ·     
    Multiple dendrites that are attached to 1 axon
    or cell body

    Really good for sensory, it covers a lot of
    surface area, it’s good in interneuronal communication
    MULTIPOLAR
  14. ·     
    Where the cell body is in the center and it is
    good for bi-directional communication, it’s a very quick way of getting information
    to two points, it’s speedy because it has a shorter axon which is good for
    vision and hearing
    BIPOLAR
  15. ·     
    Has a cell body in the center and then T’s off,
    so the reception would occur at the bottom then get sent up!; good for the
    spinal cord
    UNIPOLAR CELL
  16. long, and it’s good for sensory tracts and motor
    tracts
    GOLGI TYPE 1
  17. short, good for interneuronal communication
    GOLGI TYPE 2
  18. ·     
    type of glia cell that are in the CNS, can do
    both gray (processing) and white (transportation) matter in the brain


    Good for lining, if there’s damage, this is sent
    in to repair and create “scar tissue” around dead nerve cells, also within the
    blood brain barrier: where blood is filtered
    ASTROCYTES
  19. in the CNS, it’s the primary cell found in the
    myelin sheathing of the CNS
    OLIGODENDROCYTES
  20. ·     
    in the CNS, it eats up the bad stuff, it travels
    to places that need repair
    MICROGLIA
  21. in the myelin sheaths of the PNS
    SWANN
  22. ·     
    You have many existing neuronal connects and the
    ones that are used , get strengthened and the others that aren’t used get
    pruned!

    ·     
    As a baby you have a lot of neural connections
    and as they develop they stabilize a neural pathway, by pruning the connections
    that aren’t used.
    NEURAL PRUNNING
  23. used in the forebrain, and regulates forebrain
    activity, used as an inhibitor in the basal ganglia, also used in the pns or
    muscular contraction, It’ll dump on the muscular tissue; it’s important for the
    sleep and wake process
    ACH
  24. ppl with this can’t reuptake their ACH, and
    can’t absorb it well either, so they get tired and fatigued easily. So the
    process of using the ACH to activate muscle tissue is jacked up and need time
    to slowly absorb the ACH where it needs to be; this reduction in the ACH can
    affect the sleep cycle; this is an autoimmune disorder
    Myasthenia gravis
  25. does a lot of regulation for limbic areas and
    some prefrontal things like motor planning, also regulates basal ganglia motor
    functioning, also involved in reward for pleasure pathways
    DOPAMINE
  26. ·     
    good for sleep and attention and mood, found a
    lot in your autonomic nervous system, also used to try and treat depression
    NOREPINEPHRINE
  27. ·     
    deals with arousal and emotions and the
    perception of pain, used for clinical depression; present in the brainstem and
    the limbic system
    SEROTONIN
  28. ·     
    the fast NT used for bi-directional CNS
    activation, very quick in the CNS, used in association fibers, used in the
    brain because of it’s speed
    GLUTAMATE
  29. ·     
    an inhibitor in the basal ganglia and used for
    pain regulation and excitability; can inhibit stuff , imp inhibitor in the CNS,
    includes the striatum and the basal ganglia; it’s associated with Huntington’s
    chorea
    GABA
  30. Drugs are either trying to _ to reduce activity
    • block the release or reception in the synapse
    • and these are called antagonist
  31. Drugs that block from being reabsorbed is
    • an agonist which
    • increases activity
  32. ·     
    tumor is bad, they are more aggressive in there
    growth and attack of others
    MALIGNANT
  33. has a slow growth process, has low chance of
    spreading throughout the body
    BENIGN
  34. ·     
    Treatments for cancer and tumors
    chemotherapy, surgery and radiation
  35. an autoimmune demyelination, it creates antagonist
    that eat it’s own myelin, once it eats to a certain point it stops, they can
    lose function very quickly and get it back slowly, antibodies in the ACH
    receptors  causing the ACH longer to be
    absorbed in a different channel, has a slower onset
    MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS
  36. an autoimmune of the PNS, it’s reversible, may
    come from eating infected food, end result is bulbar palsy (respiratory muscles
    affect) making it hard to breathe.
    Guillain Barré Syndrome
  37. TYPES OF GLIA CELLS (4)
    ASTROCYTES, SWANN CELLS, MICROGLIA AND EPENDYMAL
  38. ·     
    CELL IN the ventricles of the CNS, and they line the
    ventricles
    EPENDYMAL CELLS
  39. 4 COMPONENTS OF THE DIENCEPHALON
    THALAMUS, EPITHALAMUS, SUBTHALAMUS AND HYPOTHALAMUS
  40. it channels projection from sensations to specific cortical
    information: pain, taste, and vision

    integrates the sensory with the motor before it gets sent back
    to the primary and secondary motoric cortices

    it regulates the association cortices like the pre-motor cortices , it
    regulars initiation and inhibition of cognitive functions ( ex: the
    bradykinesia of someone with Parkinson’s; use a reflective pathway to trick the
    body into starting, adds a sensory input in the thalamus)
    THE THALAMUS
  41. WHAT ARE THE 3 FUNCTIONS OF THE THALAMUS
    • it channels projection from sensations to specific cortical
    • information: pain, taste, and vision

    • integrates the sensory with the motor before it gets sent back
    • to the primary and secondary motoric cortices

    • it regulates the association cortices like the pre-motor cortices ,
    • it regulates initiation and inhibition of cognitive functions ( ex: the
    • bradykinesia of someone with Parkinson’s; use a reflective pathway to trick the
    • body into starting, adds a sensory input in the thalamus)
  42. ·     
    when the uncontrolled bad tissue growth expands
    and enters the blood stream, usually the blood brain barrier will prevent the
    tissue for leaving the brain
    Metastasis

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