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What is the central sociological principle of education?
Reflects the nations culture and economy
Public education in America is characterized by _________.
Social control, individualism, competition, patriotism, private property, (elementary form of social order) high archy
Emile Durhkeim argued that religion is an elementary form of _________ and is anchored in __________.
Life, social solidarity
Edgar and Jayne are a couple in their 40’s. They are busy raising a family of three children. They also spend considerable time each week at their parent’s homes doing yard maintenance and running errands for their parents. Edgar and Jayne are members of the __________ generation.
According to Emile Durkheim, by worshipping and venerating God or gods, we are actually worshipping and venerating our own ___________.
Society/power of society
The need to attach meaning to our lives, to receive emotional comfort during times of sorrow, to feel a sense of solidarity with others and to have guidelines with which to direct our lives are thought to be universal needs. Since religion responds to these needs, some theorists suggest that it is therefore ____________.
2 different answers
Religion are functional equivalent
Regarding religion, what do the views of Emile Durkheim, Karl Marx, and Max Weber have in common?
All believe that religion is made up
Within the realm of social theory, the common thread that serves to bind Karl Marx, Max Weber, Sigmund Freud, and Emile Durkheim together is their collective interest in explaining the ever present misery lurking within modern society. That religion is made up
What is the correspondence principle?
The sociological principle that schools correspond to (or reflect) the social structure of their society.
A.S. Neill’s Summerhill School subscribes to the philosophy ___________.
a. Free school/the school fit the child (not the child fit the school)
In the United States, the choice of a marriage partner tends to be based on _________.
2 different answers Mutual rights and obligations Age, race, gender, social status
People who help out in hard times and who are considered as close as blood relatives are described by sociologists as?
The central characteristics of A.S. Neil’s Summerhill School?
Self government, play, self regulation
The relationship of the institution of family and violence?
With exemption of the military at times of war, the institution of family is the most violent
The hidden curriculum?
The unwritten goals of schools, such as teaching obedience to authority and conforming to cultural norms.
is the attitudes and unwritten rules of behaviors that are taught in school. Depending on there is a difference in these teaching depending on the social class of the school.
Weber’s argument about religion?
Subjective to interpretation and meanings
Marital happiness/satisfaction drops _____________.
At the birth of the first child
It increases when the children leaves home
Behavior that comes from an outside compulsion rather than from the self is the implicit command of _____________.
2 different answers self regulation authority
The Calvinist belief in relaxation as immoral, in the enjoyment of wealth as a distraction from the pursuit of a righteous life, and in the worldly calling of restless, continuous, systematic work as the highest means of asceticism was to Weber an attitude toward life that he called ___________.
The primary source of strain in the typical one-parent family is _________.
Finances/income (money problems) economic
Functionalists say that social placement or tracking of students is beneficial to society because it ensures that the more capable people fill positions requiring ___________.
More education, more freedom/autonomy, advanced education, higher education/intelligence
it ensures that most capable people fill the most important positions
Karl Marx argued that religion helps to deflect workers’ attention from earthly matters to spiritual ones by seducing them with promises of a better life after death, thus causing them to develop ____________, an acceptance of the dominance and ideologies of their oppressors.
Working class families tend to _____________.
Pool resources for survival/ give to charity
Most people tend to remarry again after a divorce, but on average ____________.
Men remarry sooner than women after a divorce
In Summerhill School where childhood is seen as playhood, children are expected to ____________.
Play-allow children to be themselves, no organized games/competition
Religion according to Emile Durkheim?
Social creation, profane, sacred, society divinized
Durkheim also interested in religious belief as a 'social fact'...Tried to deal with religious thought systematically...Argued that there was a close relationship between religious belief and social structure.
Difference between extended families and the modern nuclear family?
Extended families = less mobile consisting of not only immediate family but cousins, aunts, uncles, grandparents, etc.
Modern Nuclear Families = very mobile consisting of parents and children, dad, mom, child, dog. Only immediate family.
Blended, extended, nuclear, gay, lesbian, divorced, single parent
Religion in US?
Most religious among the poor, 86% protestant and catholic, 91% religious preference, 280 religious denominations
It aids in cohering or providing solidarity by ensuring that people meet regularly to affirm common beliefs and values.
What is true about divorce?
The earlier the marriage the more likely a divorce, 6 years is average to get a divorce, in economic peaks divorce rates rise and in economic depression and recession divorce rates go down
Child abuse in the United States?
Mostly poor who abuse children/spank them, spanking causes mixed feelings between love and violence at a young age, parents who spank usually were spanked as a kid, spanking reoccurs with newer generations.
What is deviance?
Violation of social norms and how society perceives your actions
Mores: strict conformity, usually laws
Folkways: standards of behavior that is not strictly controlled
the recognized violation of cultural norms. Behavior that is considered as violating specific rules and norms.
Functionalists view of deviance?
- a. Deviance clarifies morals and affirms norms
- b. Deviance encourages social unity
- c. Deviance promotes social change
represents a social psycological explanation for how criminal behavior is transmitted, not originatedcriminal behavior is learnedtheory accounts for selecting criminal and non criminal methods for ach
Theory of Differential Association?
a. Edwin Sutherland’s term to indicate that people who associate with some groups learn an “excess of definitions” of deviance, increasing the likelihood that they will become deviant in society.
b. From the different groups with we learn to deviate from or conform to societies norms.
a. The idea that 2 control systems inner controls and outer controls work against our tendencies to deviate.
Concept that people tend to engage in wayward or criminalbehavior unless strong moral, social, and/or retributive deterrents are in effect. In other words, they will do what they can get away with.
Harold and Maude?
a. They violated social norms by deviating from culture
Social norm (moore)
The percentage of formers prisoners who are rearrested is known as ________?
a. Recidivism Rate
According to strain theory, the underlying cause of deviance is that people experience a sense of normlessness. This sense of normlessness is referred to as ________.
Based on differential association theory, what is the most likely background shared by juvenile delinquents?
Child Neglect, abuse, background of violence
The families involved with a history of crime
The significance of names or reputations given to people when they engage in certain types of behavior is the focus of ________ theory.