CoBB When a bathroom floor collapes, itis most often a _____ collapse.
The seriosness of a floor collapse depends upon the _______ to fail.
Failure of a _______ supporting a ______ is the most devastating type of floor collapse. Because it may trigger the collapse of the entire building.
The 3 most common types of sloping roofs are the _____, ______, and ______.
Gable, Gambrel, and Hip
_______ tie opposing sloping roof rafters together to help resist the otward thrust of the rafters at the eaves.
What type of roofs structural members consist of two bearing walls and a ridge pole?
What type of roofs structural members consist of only two bearing walls?
What roofs structural members consist of two bearing walls, one ridgepole and four hip rafters?
Name the tree most common types of wood construction used for sloping roofs.
*Plank and beam
One slate or tile shingles can be ______ thick and weigh up to ____.
2" and 10 lbs
A roof or floor which has the structural members spaced several feet apart. Creats a _____ effect.
The stability of the roof deck depends on the number of _____ running purpendicular to the trusses.
Roof covering can be devided into two categories which are ____ and _____ coverings.
*Built-up Roof covrings
*Prepared roof coverings
Timber is wooden construct6ion larger than __ but not large enough to be classified as ___.
2x4, Heavy Timber
The most common connector for a timber truss roof is the ______ connector.
Split ring metal
The most common timber truss roof is the ______ timber truss.
How many Bearing walls does a bowstring truss roof have?
Openings in a wall weaken its _______ capacity and permit _____.
Load bearing, Fire spread
During a fire, ______ of a truss is the key to a safe operation.
A large space, created by the concave underside of a bowstring roof which collect the heat and smoke is called a _________.
When the I.C. recieves conflicting reports from interior and roof crews in a bowstring truss building, Which report is the more important?
The roof crews
In a timber truss bldg., the main fire will be in the ______.
Roof Structure, not the content below
In what way do web members w/ fire retarding materials react differently in refernce to collapse then those w/o fire retarding materials?
With= trusses fail one at a time
Without= the entire roof will fail at once
Roof ventilation is a _______ tactics in an occupied bldg.
When evacuating a truss roof, firefightes should retreat in a direction ______ to the roof trusses.
What 2 things does a firefighter need to determine a roofs stability?
* Knowledge of a roofs construction
* Experiance in fire size-up
Flat roofs are supported in what 3 ways?
* Solid Beams
* Parrallel chord
* Open-web steel bar joist
Lightweight roof joist (parallel cord wood) may be expected to fail after about _____ inn a fully developed fire.
A stell bar joist system may collapse after _____ of exposure to fire.
What type of ventilation should be used w/ fire buildings which have steel joist or parallel chourd roof system?
When a roof has a interventing space in which the roof deck is resting on a smaller wood framework which is built above the main roof supports, it is called a ____ or _____ roof.
RAISED OR INVERTED
FF's operating on a roof should continuosly beaware of an ______ and should never allow fire to ______ and their roof position.
* Emergency escape route
* Get between their escape route
A change in roof joist _____ and failure characteristics of ______ steel must be viewed by FFs as an extremely hazardous change in roof construction.
Lightwieght steel bar joist encased in a fire-protective material has a fire-resistive rating of up to______ .
Depending on the size of the steel and the roof load, open web steel bar joist can be spaced up to ______ apart.
What 4 factoprs dtermine the speed w/ which unprotected steel will fail during a fire?
* Temperature of fire
* Size of fire
* Load stress
* Steel thickness
The failure temp. of steel is ______, at which point it losses approx. _____ of its load carrying capacity.
When heated to 1100* F the lenght of a steel member increases approx.???
1 inch every 10 feet
Refering to stress factor, the _________ the supported load, the ______ a structural steel member can fail.
Name the 2 common types of roof decks used above the corragated steel deck of a bar joist roof.
Precast concrete plank
The ______ shows the temp. rise of a standard test fire used to measure the fire performance of construction assemblies.
Two types of wood truss systems are?
Lightwieght and heavy timber
In a heavy timber roof construction, the dimension must be at least ____ wide and ____ deep.
4 inches wide, 6 inches deep
In ANY structural element, the critical area subject to failure during a fire is the ____.
Point of connection
A flat floor or floor suported by lightweight truss will allow fire spread faster throughout the concealed space then one supported by a ________.
What 2 broad categories can ceilings be devided into?
Those affixed to floor joist above
What are 3 common types of suspended ceilings?
*Wood gridw/ affixed ceiling
*Metal grid w/ affixed ceiling
*Lightwieght metal grid w/removable panels
The additional suspended ceiling and the holes that accompany them create a _______ effect which provides for vertical spread of fire.
Lieghtweight metal grid systems weigh approx. ____ psf, while the other two can weigh up to ________psf.
1 psf, 10 psf
The most important first step for the rescue of a FF trapped beneath a ceiling is to sweep the collapse area above the ceiling with a _____
Hose line to knock down flames
A ______ may be used to temporarily shore up a weakened ceiling.
When effecting a rescue for a FF trapped in a rear of a store. the entry should be made from________.
The ___ is the safest area in a wooden interior and logically the best avenue for inital fire attack.
Name 3 types of stairs?
A ________ stair is most often constructed of wood and found in____ where as the _____________stair is most often constructed w/ a steel frame and is preferred in modern buildings.
L-shaped, residential home,U-turn
An L-shaped stair breaks up the stair climb at the middle of the rise w/ an intermediate landing.
Weather or not a stair will collapse w/ a floor depends on the _______.
The most serious injuries resulting from a U-return stair collapse occur at the ______.
The most frequent cuase of collapse of a U-return stair w/ stone treads, a FF should place the middle of his foot on the _____ directly over the______.
Stone Tread, riser
On a ______ stair, there are no soffits.
The most fequent cause of collapse of a U-return stair is the failure of the stone____ or ____.
Tread or step
Name the 3 classifications of fire escapes?
*Exterior Screened Stairway
* party balcony
* Standard w/ mechanical street ladder
The cause of most injuries due to fire escape collapse is?
The sfest type of fire escape is?
Exterior Screened Stairway
The hazard of the _______ is collapse from overlading or failure of the supports.
The most common type of fire escape on a residential building ia?
Standard Fire escape
The most frequent cause of injury to FF's using standard fire escape is?
Where should a FF position himself when a lowering a drop ladder?
Beneath the Fire escape
Firefighters should remember that a broken or missing step_______________.
Serves as a warning.
A _____ Collapse may not exhibit any structural warnings before its collapse.
Structures w/ _____ walls rarely have more than one wall collapse at a time except in case of ______.
Of the 3 types of wood frame buildings, ____ buildings present the greatest firefghter danger.
Name the 2 less common types of wood frame construction.
Log Cabin, Plank and Beam
WHat are the 2 indicators of a building of brace-frame construction?
*Mortise and tenon joints
What 3 factors contribute to the inward/outward collapse of a braced-framed building?
*Failure at the mortise and tenon
*Exterior wall overload
*Destruction of bearing walls
In peaked roof bldgs, bearing bearing walls support the majority of the ________ that are parrallel to the _______.
Roof rafters, ridgepole
In flat-roofed wood bldgs the bearing walls are ussually the walls with the _______.
The exterior wall of a wood frame bldg can be weakened by the weight of_______.
A metal fire escape/ ladder
During a fire, the wall supporting a metal fire escape must be considered a ____.
Name the two types of masonry surfaces applied to outside walls of old wood bldgs.
*Brick and mortor veneer
Name 2 types of framework for high=rise structures.
* Structural Steel
* Reinforced Concrete
Reinforced concrete bldgs are built w/ either ______ and ______ methods.
Cast in place
What type of concrete structures under construction experiance the greatest number of major fires?
Cast in Place
It takes appox. ___ for concrete to reach its maximum strength?
After ____ hours a concrete floor, depending upon the_____,and _____, can have sufficient enough strength to remove the framework.
48, types of concrete and temperature
Within ___ hours of pouring , the entire concrete floor can collapse on FFs if the wood frame work has been destroyed by fire.
The ___ content of concrete is greatest during the first 27 days after pouring.
Name two types of spalling??
The 4 x 4 timber used for framework which are known to FFs as columns, girders, and beams are know to construction wrokers as_____,_____, and_______.
Legs, Stringers and Ribs
If removing timbers from framework, FFs should consult w/ the construction __________ to determine the structural stability of the framework.
The _________ presents a serious collapse danger during a fire because it extends beyong the outer edge of the structur and is constructed w/ ___ x __ timbers
Name some differences between equipment hoist and a personnel hoist.
Personnel= controls in car, much safer
Equipment= controls on the ground, 1 to 2 steel cables, no safety brakes
Chief's dealing w/ windblown embers must direc FFs to___________.
Examine adjacent roofs
In many states, the laws require a vertical standpipe system foe any bldg over ____ stories.
During construction, the standpipe riser is to keep pace w/ the hieght of the bldg usually ____ to ____ stories below the most recently constructed level.
1 to 2 stories
When high-rise bldgs under construction exceed __ or__, an _____ valve must sbdivide the vertical riser into sections.
150ft or 15 stories
OS and Y
When water cannot be pumped to an upper floor and all valves are confirmed closed, the pipe riser should be examined for the presence of a ___ and Check _____.
OS and Y, its position
Fire Companies should _______ inspect all construction sites to be familiar with hazards.
__________ is ground based or an aerial device w/ a fog/straight stream delivering more then _____.
Master Streams, 300 GPM
What 3 changes have increased the effectiveness of the master stream?
*Hose diameter have increased
*improved radio communication
*Master streams are no longer restricted to the ground
Name 3 of the happiest people in n the BCOFD?
A lil laugh
Wkat is the most serious collapse danger which a master stream can cause?
The Large volume of water dichared intro the bldg.
When smokes reduces visibility, FFs must rely on the ___________ striking objects to determine its effectiveness.
Sounds of a master stream
When a fire is in the cockloft, streams are most effective when positioned _________.
Below the ceiling
What 3 elements are required for a safe transition from interior to an exterior attack on a building structure?
Interior OIC has effective command and control of FFs
Effective Communication between the interior/exterior OIC
Exterior OIC understands the never-changing priorities of fireground strategy
________ and is one of the most important objectives of a collapse rescue operation.
Control and Orginization
The best way to gain control of a collapse rescue effort is for the OIC to issue __________.
Prioritize the following stepsof a standard collapse rescue plan: General debis removal, Search/remove surface vitims, search voids, survey the collapse site, shut off utilities, select debris removal
1. Survey collapse site
2. Shut off utilities
3. Remove surface victims
4. Search voids
5. Selected debris removal
6. General debris removal
One of the most important assignments to be given by the OIC is to _________.
Shut off utilities
After every structural collapse where portions of the bldg remain broken but upright. there is danger of ______________.
The important point when ________ is not to move or attemp to restore the unstable structure to its________.
SHoring, Original position
After a large -scale strutural failure, the members at the scene will need ________.
When a collapse occurs during a fire he first duty of the OIC is to determine?
Is to determine if anyone is trapped or missing
Even if all FFs are accounted for. The _________ should still be carried out.
General debris removal
Only after notification from a ______ or ______, can the chief direct a precautionary action, warn others at the scene or change his strategy.
Firefighter or Officer
A precautionary actionmay range from a _____ acknowledgment to an ________ of all FFs.
Simple verbal, emergency evacuation
________ can be detirmined by examining the floor joist where the end rests on the corbel shelf or girder.
There should be at least ____ or more of floor joistends being supported by the shelf or girder.
2 inches or more
When roping off an area, the rope /tape should be from____ to ________ height above the ground.
Waist to Chest
Miscalculation of the potential ______ wall collapse could be just as deadly as miscalculation of the __ area of a wall collapse.
All masonry walls separating blds into sections are not ______?
True Fire walls
A ______ seperating two sections of a bldg is designed toallow collapse of the roof of one section w/o affecting tyhe ____ of ______ of said wall.
Firewall, Integrity or stability
_________ is the one situation that most often causes a commander to withdraw FFs from a burning bldg.
Large body of fire in an old bldg
The difference between withdrawing FF and an emergency evac, is the _____ of collapse versus a collapse that ______ or _____.
Will definitly happen or has already occured
The 3 commandments of fire ground stategy are?
Containment of fire
Protection of property
A firefighters death or seroius injury cannot be justified by _______.
Size up duties of the first in OIC are to locate ______ and determine _____________.
The fire, Its severity
A _________ is a strategy, tactic and safety investigation from the point of view iof the fireground commander.
Two important factors of the fire analysis fact sheet are the point of the fire ________ and the __________.
Origin, cause of the fire.
Fire spread beyond the point of origin is primarily determined by the structures ______ and _______.
Design and construction
Match the following:
1. Structural fire loading_____ a. ordinary
2. Combustible exterior walls _____b. Limited combustible
3. Central A/C duct system _______c. Heavy timber
4. Concealed voids _______d. Fire resistive
5. Combutible roof deck ______e. wood frame
Match the following:
1.Early roof collapse ______ a. Ordinary
2. Bearing wall/ instant floor collapse______ b. Fire resistive
3. Lacalized ceiling collapse by spalling______c. Heavy Timber
4. Parapet wall collapse _____ d. Limited combustible
5. Floor collapse followed be masonry walls _____e. Wood-frame