Collapse of a Burning Bldg

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firemanjlowe13
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22879
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Collapse of a Burning Bldg
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2010-08-25 17:36:25
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BCoFD Lieutenant
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BCoFD Lieutenant study material
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  1. CoBB
    When a bathroom floor collapes, itis most often a _____ collapse.
    Local
  2. CoBB
    The seriosness of a floor collapse depends upon the _______ to fail.
    First Structure
  3. CoBB
    Failure of a _______ supporting a ______ is the most devastating type of floor collapse. Because it may trigger the collapse of the entire building.
    Column, Girder
  4. CoBB
    The 3 most common types of sloping roofs are the _____, ______, and ______.
    Gable, Gambrel, and Hip
  5. CoBB
    _______ tie opposing sloping roof rafters together to help resist the otward thrust of the rafters at the eaves.
    Collar Beams
  6. CoBB
    What type of roofs structural members consist of two bearing walls and a ridge pole?
    Gable Roof
  7. CoBB
    What type of roofs structural members consist of only two bearing walls?
    Flat Roof
  8. CoBB
    What roofs structural members consist of two bearing walls, one ridgepole and four hip rafters?
    Hip Roof
  9. CoBB
    Name the tree most common types of wood construction used for sloping roofs.
    • *Timber Truss
    • *Plank and beam
    • *Rafter
  10. CoBB
    One slate or tile shingles can be ______ thick and weigh up to ____.
    2" and 10 lbs
  11. CoBB
    A roof or floor which has the structural members spaced several feet apart. Creats a _____ effect.
    Springboard
  12. CoBB
    The stability of the roof deck depends on the number of _____ running purpendicular to the trusses.
    Purlins
  13. CoBB
    Roof covering can be devided into two categories which are ____ and _____ coverings.
    • *Built-up Roof covrings
    • *Prepared roof coverings
  14. CoBB
    Timber is wooden construct6ion larger than __ but not large enough to be classified as ___.
    2x4, Heavy Timber
  15. CoBB
    The most common connector for a timber truss roof is the ______ connector.
    Split ring metal
  16. CoBB
    The most common timber truss roof is the ______ timber truss.
    Bowstring
  17. CoBB
    How many Bearing walls does a bowstring truss roof have?
    4
  18. CoBB
    Openings in a wall weaken its _______ capacity and permit _____.
    Load bearing, Fire spread
  19. CoBB
    During a fire, ______ of a truss is the key to a safe operation.
    Early identification
  20. CoBB
    A large space, created by the concave underside of a bowstring roof which collect the heat and smoke is called a _________.
    Heat Sink
  21. CoBB
    When the I.C. recieves conflicting reports from interior and roof crews in a bowstring truss building, Which report is the more important?
    The roof crews
  22. CoBB
    In a timber truss bldg., the main fire will be in the ______.
    Roof Structure, not the content below
  23. CoBB
    In what way do web members w/ fire retarding materials react differently in refernce to collapse then those w/o fire retarding materials?
    • With= trusses fail one at a time
    • Without= the entire roof will fail at once
  24. CoBB
    Roof ventilation is a _______ tactics in an occupied bldg.
    Life saving
  25. CoBB
    When evacuating a truss roof, firefightes should retreat in a direction ______ to the roof trusses.
    Perpendicular
  26. What 2 things does a firefighter need to determine a roofs stability?
    • * Knowledge of a roofs construction
    • * Experiance in fire size-up
  27. Flat roofs are supported in what 3 ways?
    • * Solid Beams
    • * Parrallel chord
    • * Open-web steel bar joist
  28. Lightweight roof joist (parallel cord wood) may be expected to fail after about _____ inn a fully developed fire.
    10 minutes
  29. A stell bar joist system may collapse after _____ of exposure to fire.
    5-10 minutes
  30. What type of ventilation should be used w/ fire buildings which have steel joist or parallel chourd roof system?
    Horizontal
  31. When a roof has a interventing space in which the roof deck is resting on a smaller wood framework which is built above the main roof supports, it is called a ____ or _____ roof.
    RAISED OR INVERTED
  32. FF's operating on a roof should continuosly beaware of an ______ and should never allow fire to ______ and their roof position.
    • * Emergency escape route
    • * Get between their escape route
  33. A change in roof joist _____ and failure characteristics of ______ steel must be viewed by FFs as an extremely hazardous change in roof construction.
    Spacing, Unprotected
  34. Lightwieght steel bar joist encased in a fire-protective material has a fire-resistive rating of up to______ .
    4 hours
  35. Depending on the size of the steel and the roof load, open web steel bar joist can be spaced up to ______ apart.
    8 feet
  36. What 4 factoprs dtermine the speed w/ which unprotected steel will fail during a fire?
    • * Temperature of fire
    • * Size of fire
    • * Load stress
    • * Steel thickness
  37. The failure temp. of steel is ______, at which point it losses approx. _____ of its load carrying capacity.
    1100*F, 40%
  38. When heated to 1100* F the lenght of a steel member increases approx.???
    1 inch every 10 feet
  39. Refering to stress factor, the _________ the supported load, the ______ a structural steel member can fail.
    greater, faster
  40. Name the 2 common types of roof decks used above the corragated steel deck of a bar joist roof.
    • Precast concrete plank
    • Lightyweight insulation
  41. The ______ shows the temp. rise of a standard test fire used to measure the fire performance of construction assemblies.
    Time-temp curve
  42. Two types of wood truss systems are?
    Lightwieght and heavy timber
  43. In a heavy timber roof construction, the dimension must be at least ____ wide and ____ deep.
    4 inches wide, 6 inches deep
  44. In ANY structural element, the critical area subject to failure during a fire is the ____.
    Point of connection
  45. A flat floor or floor suported by lightweight truss will allow fire spread faster throughout the concealed space then one supported by a ________.
    Solid Beam
  46. What 2 broad categories can ceilings be devided into?
    • Those affixed to floor joist above
    • suspended
  47. What are 3 common types of suspended ceilings?
    • *Wood gridw/ affixed ceiling
    • *Metal grid w/ affixed ceiling
    • *Lightwieght metal grid w/removable panels
  48. The additional suspended ceiling and the holes that accompany them create a _______ effect which provides for vertical spread of fire.
    Honeycomb
  49. Lieghtweight metal grid systems weigh approx. ____ psf, while the other two can weigh up to ________psf.
    1 psf, 10 psf
  50. The most important first step for the rescue of a FF trapped beneath a ceiling is to sweep the collapse area above the ceiling with a _____
    Hose line to knock down flames
  51. A ______ may be used to temporarily shore up a weakened ceiling.
    Portable ladder
  52. When effecting a rescue for a FF trapped in a rear of a store. the entry should be made from________.
    Adjoining Stores
  53. The ___ is the safest area in a wooden interior and logically the best avenue for inital fire attack.
    Stairway
  54. Name 3 types of stairs?
    • U return
    • L shaped
    • Straight run
  55. A ________ stair is most often constructed of wood and found in____ where as the _____________stair is most often constructed w/ a steel frame and is preferred in modern buildings.
    L-shaped, residential home,U-turn
  56. An L-shaped stair breaks up the stair climb at the middle of the rise w/ an intermediate landing.
    True/False
    False (U-return)
  57. Weather or not a stair will collapse w/ a floor depends on the _______.
    Stair design
  58. The most serious injuries resulting from a U-return stair collapse occur at the ______.
    Intermediate Landing
  59. The most frequent cuase of collapse of a U-return stair w/ stone treads, a FF should place the middle of his foot on the _____ directly over the______.
    Stone Tread, riser
  60. On a ______ stair, there are no soffits.
    U-return
  61. The most fequent cause of collapse of a U-return stair is the failure of the stone____ or ____.
    Tread or step
  62. Name the 3 classifications of fire escapes?
    • *Exterior Screened Stairway
    • * party balcony
    • * Standard w/ mechanical street ladder
  63. The cause of most injuries due to fire escape collapse is?
    Step Failure
  64. The sfest type of fire escape is?
    Exterior Screened Stairway
  65. The hazard of the _______ is collapse from overlading or failure of the supports.
    Party Balcony
  66. The most common type of fire escape on a residential building ia?
    Standard Fire escape
  67. The most frequent cause of injury to FF's using standard fire escape is?
    Step Collapse
  68. Where should a FF position himself when a lowering a drop ladder?
    Beneath the Fire escape
  69. Firefighters should remember that a broken or missing step_______________.
    Serves as a warning.
  70. A _____ Collapse may not exhibit any structural warnings before its collapse.
    Inward/Outward
  71. Structures w/ _____ walls rarely have more than one wall collapse at a time except in case of ______.
    Masonry, explosion
  72. Of the 3 types of wood frame buildings, ____ buildings present the greatest firefghter danger.
    Braced-framed
  73. Name the 2 less common types of wood frame construction.
    Log Cabin, Plank and Beam
  74. WHat are the 2 indicators of a building of brace-frame construction?
    • *Mortise and tenon joints
    • *large timbers
  75. What 3 factors contribute to the inward/outward collapse of a braced-framed building?
    • *Failure at the mortise and tenon
    • *Exterior wall overload
    • *Destruction of bearing walls
  76. In peaked roof bldgs, bearing bearing walls support the majority of the ________ that are parrallel to the _______.
    Roof rafters, ridgepole
  77. In flat-roofed wood bldgs the bearing walls are ussually the walls with the _______.
    Greatest Dimension
  78. The exterior wall of a wood frame bldg can be weakened by the weight of_______.
    A metal fire escape/ ladder
  79. During a fire, the wall supporting a metal fire escape must be considered a ____.
    Structural danger
  80. Name the two types of masonry surfaces applied to outside walls of old wood bldgs.
    • *Brick and mortor veneer
    • *Stucco
  81. Name 2 types of framework for high=rise structures.
    • * Structural Steel
    • * Reinforced Concrete
  82. Reinforced concrete bldgs are built w/ either ______ and ______ methods.
    • Precast
    • or
    • Cast in place
  83. What type of concrete structures under construction experiance the greatest number of major fires?
    Cast in Place
  84. It takes appox. ___ for concrete to reach its maximum strength?
    27 Days
  85. After ____ hours a concrete floor, depending upon the_____,and _____, can have sufficient enough strength to remove the framework.
    48, types of concrete and temperature
  86. Within ___ hours of pouring , the entire concrete floor can collapse on FFs if the wood frame work has been destroyed by fire.
    24 hours
  87. The ___ content of concrete is greatest during the first 27 days after pouring.
    Relative moisture
  88. Name two types of spalling??
    • Explosive,
    • Dropping
  89. The 4 x 4 timber used for framework which are known to FFs as columns, girders, and beams are know to construction wrokers as_____,_____, and_______.
    Legs, Stringers and Ribs
  90. If removing timbers from framework, FFs should consult w/ the construction __________ to determine the structural stability of the framework.
    Shoring Forman
  91. The _________ presents a serious collapse danger during a fire because it extends beyong the outer edge of the structur and is constructed w/ ___ x __ timbers
    Scaffolding, 2x8
  92. Name some differences between equipment hoist and a personnel hoist.
    • Personnel= controls in car, much safer
    • Equipment= controls on the ground, 1 to 2 steel cables, no safety brakes
  93. Chief's dealing w/ windblown embers must direc FFs to___________.
    Examine adjacent roofs
  94. In many states, the laws require a vertical standpipe system foe any bldg over ____ stories.
    7 stories
  95. During construction, the standpipe riser is to keep pace w/ the hieght of the bldg usually ____ to ____ stories below the most recently constructed level.
    1 to 2 stories
  96. When high-rise bldgs under construction exceed __ or__, an _____ valve must sbdivide the vertical riser into sections.
    • 150ft or 15 stories
    • OS and Y
  97. When water cannot be pumped to an upper floor and all valves are confirmed closed, the pipe riser should be examined for the presence of a ___ and Check _____.
    OS and Y, its position
  98. Fire Companies should _______ inspect all construction sites to be familiar with hazards.
    Periodically
  99. __________ is ground based or an aerial device w/ a fog/straight stream delivering more then _____.
    Master Streams, 300 GPM
  100. What 3 changes have increased the effectiveness of the master stream?
    • *Hose diameter have increased
    • *improved radio communication
    • *Master streams are no longer restricted to the ground
  101. Name 3 of the happiest people in n the BCOFD?
    • :{)
    • A lil laugh
  102. Wkat is the most serious collapse danger which a master stream can cause?
    The Large volume of water dichared intro the bldg.
  103. When smokes reduces visibility, FFs must rely on the ___________ striking objects to determine its effectiveness.
    Sounds of a master stream
  104. When a fire is in the cockloft, streams are most effective when positioned _________.
    Below the ceiling
  105. What 3 elements are required for a safe transition from interior to an exterior attack on a building structure?
    • Interior OIC has effective command and control of FFs
    • Effective Communication between the interior/exterior OIC
    • Exterior OIC understands the never-changing priorities of fireground strategy
  106. ________ and is one of the most important objectives of a collapse rescue operation.
    Control and Orginization
  107. The best way to gain control of a collapse rescue effort is for the OIC to issue __________.
    Specific Assignments
  108. Prioritize the following stepsof a standard collapse rescue plan: General debis removal, Search/remove surface vitims, search voids, survey the collapse site, shut off utilities, select debris removal
    • 1. Survey collapse site
    • 2. Shut off utilities
    • 3. Remove surface victims
    • 4. Search voids
    • 5. Selected debris removal
    • 6. General debris removal
  109. One of the most important assignments to be given by the OIC is to _________.
    Shut off utilities
  110. After every structural collapse where portions of the bldg remain broken but upright. there is danger of ______________.
    Secondary Collapse
  111. The important point when ________ is not to move or attemp to restore the unstable structure to its________.
    SHoring, Original position
  112. After a large -scale strutural failure, the members at the scene will need ________.
    Replacement
  113. When a collapse occurs during a fire he first duty of the OIC is to determine?
    Is to determine if anyone is trapped or missing
  114. Even if all FFs are accounted for. The _________ should still be carried out.
    General debris removal
  115. Only after notification from a ______ or ______, can the chief direct a precautionary action, warn others at the scene or change his strategy.
    Firefighter or Officer
  116. A precautionary actionmay range from a _____ acknowledgment to an ________ of all FFs.
    Simple verbal, emergency evacuation
  117. ________ can be detirmined by examining the floor joist where the end rests on the corbel shelf or girder.
    Overloading
  118. There should be at least ____ or more of floor joistends being supported by the shelf or girder.
    2 inches or more
  119. When roping off an area, the rope /tape should be from____ to ________ height above the ground.
    Waist to Chest
  120. Miscalculation of the potential ______ wall collapse could be just as deadly as miscalculation of the __ area of a wall collapse.
    Horizontal, Vertical
  121. All masonry walls separating blds into sections are not ______?
    True Fire walls
  122. A ______ seperating two sections of a bldg is designed toallow collapse of the roof of one section w/o affecting tyhe ____ of ______ of said wall.
    Firewall, Integrity or stability
  123. _________ is the one situation that most often causes a commander to withdraw FFs from a burning bldg.
    Large body of fire in an old bldg
  124. The difference between withdrawing FF and an emergency evac, is the _____ of collapse versus a collapse that ______ or _____.
    • Anticipation
    • Will definitly happen or has already occured
  125. The 3 commandments of fire ground stategy are?
    • Protect life
    • Containment of fire
    • Protection of property
  126. A firefighters death or seroius injury cannot be justified by _______.
    Property Protection
  127. Size up duties of the first in OIC are to locate ______ and determine _____________.
    The fire, Its severity
  128. A _________ is a strategy, tactic and safety investigation from the point of view iof the fireground commander.
    Post-fire analysis
  129. Two important factors of the fire analysis fact sheet are the point of the fire ________ and the __________.
    Origin, cause of the fire.
  130. Fire spread beyond the point of origin is primarily determined by the structures ______ and _______.
    Design and construction
  131. Match the following:
    1. Structural fire loading_____ a. ordinary
    2. Combustible exterior walls _____b. Limited combustible
    3. Central A/C duct system _______c. Heavy timber
    4. Concealed voids _______d. Fire resistive
    5. Combutible roof deck ______e. wood frame
    • 1. Structural fire loading ====c. Heavy timber
    • 2. Combustible exterior walls ====e. wood frame
    • 3. Central A/C duct system ===d. Fire resistive
    • 4. Concealed voids ===a. ordinary
    • 5. Combutible roof deck ====b. Limited combustible
  132. CoBB
    Match the following:
    1.Early roof collapse ______ a. Ordinary
    2. Bearing wall/ instant floor collapse______ b. Fire resistive
    3. Lacalized ceiling collapse by spalling______c. Heavy Timber
    4. Parapet wall collapse _____ d. Limited combustible
    5. Floor collapse followed be masonry walls _____e. Wood-frame
    • 1.Early roof collapse ====d. Limited combustible
    • 2. Bearing wall/ instant floor collapse ====e. Wood-frame
    • 3. Lacalized ceiling collapse by spalling ====b. Fire resistive
    • 4. Parapet wall collapse ====a. Ordinary
    • 5. Floor collapse followed be masonry walls ====c. Heavy Timber
  133. CoBB
    In many instances there are ___ causes of a burning bldg collapse.
    More than one
  134. Cobb
    _______ is the planning/directing of the actions of a large # of FFs and Apparatus
    Strategy
  135. Cobb
    ______ are the operation of a fire company performed at a fire.
    Tactics
  136. CoBB
    Name 3 parts to the post-fire-ground analysis?
    • Fact sheet
    • Diagram of fireground
    • Photo documentation
  137. CoBB
    The most important part of the post-fire-analysis is the ____.
    Photo documentation
  138. CoBB
    The _________ used to fasten structural members together is a factor in many collapses.
    Type of connection
  139. CoBB
    The most important stategy and tactical consideration at a fire is ________ and _______.
    Water Supply and Pressure
  140. CoBB
    A burning building collapse is the ____ leading cause of fire ground deaths.
    Fourth
  141. CoBB
    What 3 factors will increase the number of burning building collapses?
    • Age of building
    • Abandonment
    • lightweight construction materials
  142. CoBB
    A building like a person has a life span of around ______ years.
    75 to 100
  143. CoBB
    One reason for the lack of _____ is that any research into the subject offers little benefit to anyone except _________.
    • Collapse studies
    • Firefighters
  144. CoBB
    ________ is any portion of a structure that fails as a result of a fire.
    Structural collapse
  145. CoBB
    The most important reason for the absence of collapse info for FF's is the lack of FD _______ and ________ of collapse.
    Documentation and record
  146. CoBB
    When a burning building collapse kills or seriously injures a FF a ___________ and analysis should be conducted
    Post-incident investigation
  147. CoBB
    ______ is a curved masonry structure used as a support over an open space.
    Arch
  148. CoBB
    Name the 3 basic methods for constructing wood frame residential buildings?
    • Brace frame
    • Balloon frame
    • Platform
  149. CoBB
    A ______ is a horizontal structural member subject to compression, tension, and shearing?
    Beam
  150. CoBB
    Name 3 types of beams?
    • Simple
    • Continuous
    • Cantilever
  151. CoBB
    _______ frame buildings exterior walls have studs extending continuously from the structures ________ sill to the top plate near the ______.
    • Balloon Frame
    • Foundation
    • Attic
  152. CoBB
    _______ Frame construction also known as Post and Girt?
    Braced frame
  153. CoBB
    In Post and Girt or Braced framed construction, the Post is the ________ structural member, and the girt is the ___________ structural member.
    Vertical, Horizontal
  154. CoBB
    Post and Girt are connected by _______ and ________ joints?
    Mortise and tenon
  155. CoBB
    Brace framed building walls often fail in a ___________ collapse.
    Inward/outward
  156. CoBB
    ____________ is a wall reinforced or brace built on the outside of a structure.
    A Buttress
  157. CoBB
    When seperated from the wall and connected by an arch at the top, it is known as A ___________.
    Flying buttress
  158. CoBB
    A buttress constructed on the inside of a wall as called a _________.
    Pilaster
  159. Cobb
    Name 3 types of masonry wall collapse?
    • Inward/Outward
    • Curtain-fall
    • 90 degree
  160. CoBB
    ____________ is a type of collapse of an exterior wall that breaks apart horizontally.
    Inward/Outward
  161. CoBB
    __________ is a wood-frame building collapse indicated by th burning structure slowly starting to tilt or lean to one side.
    Lean-over collapse
  162. CoBB
    A floor collapse in which one end of the floor beams remain partially supported by the bearing wall and the other end collapses on the floor below is known as a _________ Collapse.
    Lean to collapse
  163. CoBB
    A lean to collapse can be classified as _____ or _____.
    Supported or Unsupported
  164. CoBB
    A __ adds stability to a masonry wall.
    Buttress
  165. CoBB
    When floor beams pull loose or collapse at both ends, it is called a __________.
    Pancake floor collapse
  166. CoBB
    The collapse of portions of taller burning structures on to smaller structures causing the smaller to collapse is a ________.
    Secondary Collapse
  167. CoBB
    _________ is when a floor collapses and a interior partition or wall holds up the center of the fallen floor.
    A Tent floor collapse
  168. ________ is the collapse of a floor at the center and both ends remain partially supported.
    V-shape floor collapse
  169. ________ is a vertical structural member subject to compressive forces.
    A Column
  170. CoBB
    ______ and ______ are considered the main vertical framework of a building?
    Columns and bearing walls
  171. CoBB
    _______ and ___ are the main horizontal framework of a building...
    Girders and Beams
  172. CoBB
    ___________is the top masonry tile or stone of a parapet wall, designed to carry off rainwater. It is also known as a ______.
    • Coping stone
    • Cap Stone
  173. CoBB
    ____ is a bracket or extension of masonry that projects from a masonry wall. it can be decorative or used as a support.
    Corbel
  174. CoBB
    A Corbel used on the inside of a masonry wall to support a beam is called a ______.
    Corbel shelf or Corbel ledge
  175. CoBB
    __________ is a horizontal surface covering supported by a floor or a roof beam.
    Deck
  176. CoBB
    _________ is a bend, twist or curve of a structural element under a load.
    Deflection
  177. CoBB
    The front or face of a building is called _______.
    Facade
  178. CoBB
    The portion of a facade wall which extends above the roof level is called a ________.
    Parapet wall
  179. The ________ wall with a ______ is one of the most unstable walls a FF will encounter.
    • Ornamental Facade Parapet
    • Decorative corbel coping stone
  180. CoBB
    A ________ beam is a gravity support beam end designed to release itself from the masonry wall during a collapse.
    Fire-Cut
  181. Name the advantage and disadvantage for FF and the fire cut beam??
    • Advantage- The floor collapse will not topple the bearing walls outward.
    • Disadvantage- early floor collapse n interior crews.
  182. CoBB
    _________ is the maximum amount of heat release when all combustible material in a given fire area is burned.
    Fire Load
  183. CoBB
    ______ is the cause of motion change in a motion, or stoppage of motion.
    Force
  184. CoBB
    A force acting on a structure can be ____ or ________.
    External or Internal
  185. CoBB
    Any type of external force is a _______.
    Load
  186. CoBB
    An internal force is a _______.
    Stress
  187. CoBB
    A structural element that supports floors or roof beams?
    Girder
  188. CoBB
    A metal fastener in the form a of a plate, used to connect structural members?
    Gusset Plate
  189. CoBB
    A type of gusset plate, used on light weight wood trusses, which is a ___ thick piece of sheet metal and v-shaped holes ____ long that are punched out and act as the nails.
    • Sheet metal surface fastener
    • 1/4", 1/2"
    • Page 148
  190. CoBB
    A _______ beam, sometime doubled for strength is used to reinforce the opening of a floor and is placed perpendicular to the trimmer beam.
    Header
  191. CoBB
    Structural collapse during a fire is directly proportional to the _______.
    Fire Load
  192. Cobb
    A ______ is a piece of lumber used as a floor beam. It is also called a ____ or ________.
    • Joist
    • Rafter or Beam
  193. CoBB
    ______ is most of used when stating the strength of steel (K.S.I.) and equals _______??
    KIP, 1000 lbs
  194. Cobb
    A _______ is a load bearing structural element that supports and redistributes the load above a opening?
    Lintel
  195. Name 4 types of loads which can act upon a structure and cause its collapse
    • Dead
    • Live
    • Impact
    • Fire
  196. Cobb
    A load can be imposed upon a structural element in what 3 methods.
    • Axial
    • Eccentric
    • Torsional or Twisting
  197. A ____ load is applied at one point or within a limited area of the structure.
    Concentrated
  198. What are 5 major loads that must be considered in the design of a building?
    Dead, Live, Wind, Impact, and Seismic loads
  199. Cobb
    ________ loads pass through the center of the structure. Explain how this can shift.
    • Axial Loads
    • Heat from fire deforms structural elements transmitting load to eccentric
  200. _______ loads are applied to a structure suddenly, such as a shock wave vibration load
    Impact
  201. Cobb
    A ________ load transmitted off-center or evenly though the structural member.
    Eccentric
  202. Cobb____ is a load that remains constant and is applied slowly.
    Static
  203. Cobb
    ______ Load creates a twisting stress on a structural member.
    Torsional
  204. Cobb
    ______ is a transient or movable load such as the buildings contents and occupants.
    Live
  205. Cobb
    _______ load is applied to an upright structure from a direction parallel to the ground.
    Lateral
  206. Cobb
    ______ Load is a static/ fixed load created by the structure itself and the permanent equipment within the structure.
    Dead
  207. Cobb
    ______ load is imposed on a structure by the wind?
    Wind
  208. Cobb
    Name the types of loads a FF and Master sream impose upon a structure.
    • Fire Fighters- Live and Static
    • Masterstreams- impact, lateral, live from water discharge...
  209. Cobb
    Name 3 types of stress imposed on a structure?
    • Compression
    • Tension
    • Sheer
  210. Cobb
    The most dangerous load is a _____ load.
    Concentrated
  211. Cobb
    The opposite of a concentrated load is a ________ load.
    Distributed
  212. Cobb________ is the structural connection in which a hole is cut into the timber to receive the _______.
    Mortise, Tenon
  213. Cobb
    ________ is a light wieght steel truss used as a floor or roof beam.
    Open web steel bar joist
  214. If a open web steel bar joist is unprotected, it can fail after___ to ___ minutes of fire exposure.
    5 to 10 minutes
  215. Cobb
    A pilaster, also called a __________________, can carry the load of a girder/ timber or provide_______ support to a wall.
    Wall column, Lateral
  216. Cobb
    Mortis and Tenon reduces its capacity.
    Load Bearing
  217. Cobb
    ________ frame construction has one level built and raised, the floor beams and deck are built on top of said level's walls, then the next level is built.
    Platform
  218. Cobb
    _______ is a structure that supports another structural member in the same building.
    Primary Structural member
  219. Cobb
    Name the two types of end beams?
    Restrained and Unrestrained
  220. Cobb
    A _____- is a horizontal timber that frames the highest point of a peak roof.
    Ridge pole
  221. Cobb
    _______ is the quotient of the load that will cause a structure to collapse divided by the load a structure is designed to support.
    Safety Factor
  222. Cobb
    Most structural elements are designed with a safety factor of_____.
    Two or more
  223. Cobb
    From a construction/fire protection standpoint, _____ frame construction is superior to the other types.
    Platform
  224. Cobb
    ____ is the force exerted upon a structure member that strains or deforms its shape.
    Stress
  225. Cobb
    _______ causes a structure to collapse when contacting parts or layers of the structure slide past one another.
    Sheer stress
  226. Cobb
    ______ are built several inches/feet below thew supporting roof, or floor beams above.
    Suspended Ceilings
  227. Cobb
    _____ presses or squeezes a structure together.
    Compression Force
  228. Cobb
    The concealed space above the suspended ceiling is sometimes called a ________.
    Cockloft
  229. Cobb
    _____ stress is placed on a structural member by the pull of forces causing extension.
    Tension
  230. Excessive _______ on a structure can cause it to collapse more quickly during a fire
    Stress
  231. Cobb
    A projecting, reduced portion of a timber designed to be inserted into another timber is known as a ______.
    Tenon
  232. Cobb
    A_________ floor can insulate any flames, heat , and smoke below.
    Tarrazo
  233. Cobb
    A ______ beam is constructed around the perimeter of a flor opening which supports the header.
    Trimmer
  234. Cobb
    ____ rests on a support ________and ______ and is held in place only by gravity.
    • Unrestrained beams,
    • Corbel ledge or Girder
  235. Cobb
    A ______ is a brace arrangement of steel or wood frame work made w/ triangular connecting members.
    Truss
  236. Cobb
    Name the 3 types of roof trusses?
    • Peaked truss
    • Bowstring truss
    • Parallel cord Truss
  237. Cobb
    Name 3 types of walls.
    • Free standing
    • bearing
    • non-bearing
  238. Cobb
    ________ is the continuation of a party , fire, or exterior wall extending above the roof line.
    Parapet
  239. Cobb
    ______ is a free standing masonry wall surrounding an area.
    Area wall
  240. Cobb
    _____ is a bearing wall that supports floors and roofs of two buildings.
    Party Wall
  241. Cobb
    ____ is the portion of an interior wall between the top of one window opening and the bottom of another.
    Spandrel Wall
  242. Cobb
    ________ is exposed to the elements on both sides top an bottom.
    Free standing
  243. Cobb
    ______ is a non-bearing self-suppoting wall designed to prevent the passage of fire from one side to the other.
    Fire Wall
  244. Cobb
    ______ is an exterior/interior wall that supports a load in addition to its own weight.
    Bearing Wall
  245. Cobb
    ___________ is a finished/Facing brick or stone wall on the outside of a building which is fastened to the wall w/ cement or metal ties.
    Veneer Wall
  246. Cobb
    Although it can act as a barrier, a _____________ wall is not designed to be a fire wall.
    Party wall
  247. Cobb
    A ___ wall is the most unstable wall the most likely to collapse during a fire.
    Free Standing Wall
  248. Cobb
    Name thew two types of hazardous collapse zones?
    Horizontal and Vertical
  249. Cobb
    ____________________ is the expected ground area that a falling wall will cover. Generally it is the ______ equal to the _________.
    • Vertical collapse zone
    • Distance away from the wall = to the height of the wall
  250. Cobb
    Name 5 basic types of building construction?
    • Fire Resistive
    • Non Combustible
    • Ordinary
    • Heavy Timber
    • Wood Frame
  251. Cobb
    The major Fire problem in a Fire-resistive building is the _______.
    Central Air Conditioning System
  252. Cobb
    The fire problem associated w/ limited combustible buildings is the ____________- that can ignite during a fire.
    Flat, Steel roof deck covering
  253. Cobb
    To counteract this the NFAA recommends the total weight of asphalt not exceed ____ to ____ lbs per _____ sq ft of roof area.
    12-15 lbs, 100 sq ft
  254. Cobb
    The NFAA also recommends the felt and insulation be _____ and the asphalt application cover only the ______.
    • Non combustible
    • Over lapping edges
  255. The major fire problem with ordinary construction bldgs is the fire/smoke spread though out _____.
    Concealed Spaces
  256. Cobb
    The Largest and most serious conceled space is the _________.
    Common Cockloft
  257. Cobb The major fire problem of heavy timber construction is the _________ it produces.
    Radiant heat waves
  258. Cobb A fire in a bldg of heavy timber is sometimes called __________________ burning.Slow
    Slow
  259. Cobb
    To qualify as a heavy timber construction, wood columns can be no less the ________ thick in any direction and girders can be no less then ______ thick.
    • 8 inches.
    • 6 inches
  260. Cobb
    A wood frame construction is the only one of the 5 types that has _____ walls Combustible exterior
    Combustible exterior
  261. Cobb Firefighters cannot use a ___ rating to estimate a burning building structural stability.
    Fire-Resistive
  262. Cobb
    Wood bldgs often experience _____ and _____ collapse simultaneously. In ordinary construction bldgs, the burning _____ will collapse first.
    • Walls and Floor
    • Floor
  263. Cobb
    The two basic types of fire resistive construction are ______ and _______.
    • Reinforced concrete buildings
    • Structural steel buildings
  264. Cobb
    When moisture in the concrete floors is heated and there are steel supports under the floor, the concrete ________ upwards ____ to ___.
    • Spalls
    • 6 to 12 inches
  265. Cobb
    The collapse danger to FFs w/ limited combustible bldgs is _________ , therefore , the ________ is the main structural hazard of Non-combustible construction.
    • Roof Cave in
    • Open web bar joist
  266. Cobb
    The structural hazard of an ordinary constructed bldg is _________.
    Parapet walls
  267. Cobb
    The maon structural hazard of a heavy timber bldg is the _______.
    Falling masonry walls
  268. Cobb
    Withdrawal to _______ is the strategy used at heavy timber bldg fires when the inital attack fails.
    Protect Exposures
  269. Cobb
    The structural hazard of a wood frame bldg is _________.Combustible bearing walls
    Combustible bearing walls
  270. Cobb True/False
    In a wood frame bldg, the front/rear walls are usually bearing and the side walls are non bearing.
    • False (Just the opposite)
    • The side walls are bearing, and front and rear are non bearing
  271. Cobb
    Wood frame bldgs use _____ structural members to support _____structural members.
    • Smaller,
    • Larger
  272. Cobb
    The most common type of masonry wall failure is the _______.
    90-degree angle
  273. Masonry walls often separate from the other enclosing walls at ______.
    Corner where they intersect
  274. Cobb
    The ______ of a front masonry wall following a bowstring roof collapse is extremely dangerous.
    Secondary Collapse
  275. Cobb
    When planning for bowstring timber truss roof collapse, FFs should also consider a ____ an ______ wall Collapse.
    Front and Rear
  276. Cobb
    The _______ is the area adjacent to the unstable wall which is a distance of __________.
    • Collapse Zone
    • Equal to the height of the building
  277. Cobb
    If the OIC suspects an an explosion or another factor that extends the collapse zone. All FFs should stay away and heavy caliber streams postioned _______.
    In a flanking position
  278. Cobb
    The worst type of collapse is ___.
    90 degree angle
  279. Cobb
    The most dangerous area outside a burning structure is the ___________ of the building.
    Sidewalk directly in front of the bldg.
  280. Cobb
    The Most dangerous parapet is the one constructed as the ______ wall of a ______ structure above several large display windows.
    • Front,
    • One story structure
  281. Cobb
    The presence of ______ determines how a parapet wall will collapse.
    Steel Reinforcement
  282. Cobb
    Parapet walls deteriorate faster then masonry walls because the are ________________ on both sides.
    Exposed to the elements
  283. Cobb
    Purlins are also called ______?
    Hip roof rafters
  284. Cobb
    Parapet walls often collapse during the ___________ stage of the fire.
    Overhaul
  285. Cobb
    If a masonry wall falls due to an explosion or internal pressure, the wall will collapse outward for a distance of _________.
    Equal to twice its hieght
  286. Cobb
    FireFighters use floors as _____ from which to launch interior ______ and hose line attacks.
    • Platforms
    • Searches
  287. Cobb
    A floor can be constructed of,________________,_____________,or ___________.
    • Wood
    • Masonry
    • Steel
  288. Cobb
    Wood joist floors can collapse in what 3 ways?
    • Wood deck only, (Burn though)
    • Localized failure (several joist)
    • A large section or entire floor collapse
  289. Cobb
    Bldg which have no ceilings are called _______ construction.
    Open joist
  290. Cobb
    The main cause of floor failure is often due to _______.
    Arson
  291. Cobb
    What 3 main reasons exist which explain why the collapse of a wooden floor joist support system seldom occurs in residences.
    • Not overloaded
    • Fewer structural alteration
    • Underside of floor is protected by a ceiling
  292. Cobb
    What two areas in a residence are most likely to experience a floor collapse?
    Bathroom and Kitchen
  293. Cobb
    What makes Bathroom and Kitchen floors most susceptible to collapse?
    List some reasons.
    • Weight of fixtures (tub, sink, refrigerator.. etc)
    • 2x6 joist to compensate for tile floors
    • openings in wood work for pipe
    • pipes leak/sweat causing wood to rot and weaken

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