Path 2: Final Exam Essays

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JennieF
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228836
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Path 2: Final Exam Essays
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2013-08-01 03:30:09
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pathology
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Path 2: Final Exam Essays
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  1. What happens to a cell that is starved for oxygen? (page 13)
    • 1. DECREASED BLOOD FLOW & OXYGEN delivery - lack of oxygen stops ATP production
    • 2. LACK of OXYGEN STOPS mitrochondrial production ATP
    • 3. Without ATP, plasma membrane proteins MALFUNCTION causing a DISRUPTION of ION CONCENTRATIONS within the CELL
    • 4. ACCUMULATION of IONS causes WATER to ENTER the CELL by OSMOSIS
    • 5. ORGANELLES begin to SWELL & MALFUNCTION
    • 6. RIBOSOMES become UNABLE to SYNTHESIZE PROTEINS & the CELL beings to RELY on ALTERNATIVE SOURCES of ENERGY (cell relies on anerobic production of ATP)
    • 7. ACIDIDC BY-PRODUCTS accumulate causing DAMAGE to the NUCLEAR DNA
    • 8. The CELL MEMBRANE BREAKS UP. Cell Death.
  2. Your client asks you why the area you massage gets red, warm, and swollen. How do you answer? (page 23)
    • INFLAMMATION is the TRIGGER for the HEALING PROCESS
    • ULTIMATE GOAL of INFLAMMATION is to bring tho the INVADED or INJURED area PHAGOCYTES & PLASMA PROTEINS that can:
    • 1. Destroy invaders
    • 2. Remove debris
    • 3. Prepare for healing & repair
  3. What is wrong with the statement "Massage therapy is contraindicated" (page 4)
    • It is too general & depends on:
    • CLIENT: age, medication, health status, medical conditions
    • MODALITY: depth/pressure, tools, length of session, type of modality
    • PATHOLOGY: hospice, contagious, acute/chronic, cancer
  4. Why do malignant cancers so often lead to death? (page 66)
    • 1. they are OUR SELF-CELLS, so we have a hard time recognizing them
    • 2. they GROW RAPIDLY
    • 3. they SPREAD to DISTANT SITES & invade surroundings (metastasis)
    • 4. they TAKE AWAY RESOURCES from healthy cells
  5. What are 4 things you can do as a massage therapist to stop the spread of infectious disease? (page 81)
    • 1. Hand Washing: soap & water: clean & hot, also wash the lotion bottle & table
    • 2. Laundry: handle the linen as little as possible, use a laundry bag - one clean, one dirty, keep clothes clean & oderless
    • 3. Vaccination: prevent the spread of disease, stay current
    • 4. Identification: early ID to control spread
  6. List & Discuss four of the five causes of low back pain (page 162)
    • 1. Vascular Back Px: aneurysms or peripheral vascular disease may give rise to symptoms similar to sciatica
    • 2. Neurogenic Back Px: tension, irritation, and/or compression of lumbar nerves. May cause px radiating down both legs.
    • 3. Viscerogenic Back Px: disorders of the retroperitoneal organs may affect spine
    • 4. Psychogenic Back Px: emotional overtones may cloud clinical picture
    • 5. Spondylogenic Back Px: disc degeneration, 90% of back px
  7. Why is damage to the CNS so problematic? (page 169)
    • The CNS is the BRAIN & SPINAL CORD
    • Brain CONTROLS Body, Cognition, Organ Systems
    • Spinal Cord is SENSORY & MOTOR pathway to COMMUNICATION with Brain
    • You can LOOSE motor function, memory.
    • The damage is non-reversible.
  8. List and discuss four of the five principles of cardiac dysfunction (page 213)
    • Failure of Pump Itself: damaged muscles contract or indadequately. Chambers may not empty or muscle may not relax
    • An Obstruction of Flow: lesion keeps valve from opening causing chamber of the valve to be overworked
    • Regurgitant Flow: a failed valve
    • Disorders of Cardiac Conduction: damaged conduction fibers lead to arrhythmias resulting in insufficient contractions
    • Disruption of the Continuity of the Circulatory System: holes permitting blood to escape

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