BIO ANTH EXAM 4 terminology

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BIO ANTH EXAM 4 terminology
2013-08-07 19:16:46
BIO ANTH EXAM terminology

BIO ANTH EXAM 4 terminology
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  1. What 3 things separate humans from other primates? Known as "mosaic evolution"
    • Bipedalism
    • Large Brain size
    • Tool-making
  2. The "Piltodown Hoax" led people to wrongly believe the ____ developed first
  3. The archaeological dig that discovered the Taunt child proved that ____ actually developed first
  4. _____ analysis exposed the Piltdown hoax
  5. Bipedal locomotion had several anatomical changes. Name them.
    • Pelvis
    • Long neck
    • Abductor muscles
    • Shorter, wider sacrum
    • Ability to "wiggle"
  6. fossil find considered an important link in human evolution until it was shown to be a fake in 1953
    piltdown man
  7. use of two legs rather than four for locomotion
  8. a set of anatomical adaptations that make it possible for an animal to use two legs for locomotion
    bipedal anatomy
  9. member of the family Hominidae
  10. taxonomic classification placed below subfamily and above genus
  11. member of the subfamily Hominidae, which includes the African apes and humans
  12. condition in which the lower first premolar is somewhat sharpened or flattened from rubbing against the upper canine as the mouth closes
    shearing complex
  13. boundary between the Pliocene and Pleistocene epochs, about 1.8 mya
  14. condition in which the jaw projects beyond the upper parts of the face
  15. first lower premolar that exhibits lateral (side to side) compression due to its role as a shearing surface for the upper canine tooth; related to the shearing complex
    sectorial premolar
  16. epoch that occurred between 5.0 and 1.8 mya
  17. evolutionary change and adaptation through both somatic (biological) and extrasomatic (material/cultural) means
    biocultural evolution
  18. epoch dating from 1.8 million to 10,000 years ago
  19. area that consists of two or more habitat types
    mosiac habitat
  20. the hominin genus to which humans belong; characterized by bipedal locomotion, large brains and biocultural evolution
  21. a ridge running between the parietal bones along the top of the cranium, usually representing increased bone area for the attachment of chewing muscles
    sagittal crest
  22. the characteristic of having larger postcanine teeth than would be expected for body size, measured as megadontia quotient (MQ)
  23. cheeckbones; arches created by the meeting of extensions of the temporal and zygomatic bones in the cranium
    zygomatic arches
  24. measure of premolar/molar tooth area relative to body size
    megadontia quotient (MQ)
  25. a robust projection at the front of the frontal bone on the cranium
    supraorbital torus
  26. relating to the first stone tools in the archaeological record, dating to about 2.5 million years  ago and consisting of relatively simple flakes and choppers
  27. raised area, much less pronounced than a saggittal crest, where the parietals meet on top of the cranium
    sagittal keel (ridge)
  28. pronounced ridge at the rear-most point on the occipital bone
    occiptal (or nuchal) torus
  29. incisor teeth with a shovel-like grooved inner surface
    shovel-shaped incisors
  30. relating to the type of stone tool that follows the Olduwan in the archaeological record, dating to about 1.5 mya and consisting of bifaced tools (flaked on both sides) that are more complex to make and allow more kinds of manipulation than the earlier types
  31. condition in which the width across the orbitis is greater than the width of the area behind them (where the frontal, temporal, and parietal bones intersect)
    postorbital constriction
  32. those fossil hominins in the genus Homo found in Africa and Eurasia between 600,000 and 30,000 years ago that reflects morphologies relatively distinct from both Homo erectus and modern humans; referred to as Homo heidelbergensis and Homo Neanderthalensis
    archaic humans
  33. space behind the last molar tooth and the mandibular ramus
    retromolar gap
  34. type of stone tool production that supplanted the Acheuleafor an tool kit and provided a higher quality tool that could be refined for a wide variety of uses
    Levallois technique
  35. stone tool technology centered on a disk-core technique that represented a refinement of the Levallois technique; it allowed tool makers to produce many good flakes and turn them into a wide variety of tools
    Mousterian industry
  36. the indentation on the maxilla above the canine root
    canine fossa
  37. the point where the two halves of the mandible contact one another
    mandibular symphysis
  38. tools made from stone flakes that are at least twice as long as they are wide
    blade tools